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7^ EDITH WLORNE PIERCE 
COLLECTION CANADIANA 




Queens University at Kingston 



Purchased 
from the 
Chancellor 
Richardson 
Memorial 
Fund 



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LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION 

ST. LOUIS, 1904. 

THE 

FISH AND 
GAME ATTRACTIONS 

OF THE 

DOMINION OF CANADA. 

PRINTED BY DIRECTION OF HON. SYDNEY FISHER, 
Minister of Agriculture for Canada. 

1904. 



FISH AND GAME ATTRACTIONS 



OF THE 

DOMINION OF CANADA. 



The Dominion of Canada is— par excellence — the paradise 
of the angler and the hunter. 

The rapid advance of civilization and the onward march 
of settlement throughout the more easily accessible portion s 
of the North American continent have encompassed the de- 
struction of much of the game in districts that were 
formerly renowned as hunting territories, and of the fish 
that made famous many lakes and rivers that now possess 
little or no attraction for the angler. The buffalo — the 
noblest big game of the New World — which, but a few de- 
cades since roamed the western prairies in countless 
thousands, is now all but an extinct variety ; and much of 
the former fish wealth of the Hudson, the Connecticut and 
almost all the more northerly of American streams flowing 
directly into the Atlantic ocean, which had survived the 
supposed destructiveness of the aboriginal inhabitants, could 
not long endure the higher civilization of the Pilgrim 
Fathers and their descendants, so that the salmon of the 
New England streams have gone the way that was to be 
later followed by the American bison. 

It is largely, no doubt, due to their greater inaccessi- 
bility, that the salmon and trout streams of the Dominion, 
and the habitants of the big game of Canadian wilds have 
been mercifully preserved from the destruction which has 
overtaken so many of those in the country to the south of 
us. That prominent angling authority, the late Albert 
Nelson Cheney, for many years chief fish cuiturist of the 
State of New York, wrote, not so very long ago, in Forest 
and Stream, that a gentleman whose interests were largely 
in the Adirondacks had told^him^ that the fishing in the 



4 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



North Woods was good enough for those who liked that 
kind of fishing, but that for himself, when he wanted the 
very best kind of fishing, he went to Canada. Sir John 
Richardson and Back and other distinguished scientists 
hare given their own names to some of the more famous of 
Canada's northern salmonidae ; Caspar Whitney, of Outing, 
tramped hundreds of miles on snowshoes over the barren 
lands of far northern Canada after the musk ox, while the 
polar bear in the frozen ocean, the grizzly in the far north- 
west, and the mountain sheep and goat and the male deer of 
British Columbia, furnish as exciting sport as the most 
adventurous hunter can well desire. These have attracted 
sportsmen from every part of the world. So have the 
lordly moose, which are found in almost every province of 
the Dominion, and the caribou of Ontario, Quebec and the 
more easterly provinces of the Canadian confederation. In 
addition to the visits of European hunters, the big game of 
Canadian forests yearly attracts thousands of the best 
American sportsmen, many of whom are lessees of extensive 
preserves in northern Canada. 

Commencing on the Atlantic seaboard in a hasty glance 
at the attractions offered by the Dominion to the hunter of 
big game, and following the star of empire towards the west, 
there is something to be said for the inducements offered by 
the 

Game in Nova Scotia. 

Moose exist in many portions of Nova Scotia remote 
from settlement, while many herds of woodland caribou are 
to be found both in northern Cape Breton and also in the 
south-western counties of Queens and Shelburne. Nova 
Scotia is admirably adapted to be the home of the moose. 
The forests abound with their favorite browse, and the sur- 
face of the country is dotted over with lakes which afford 
them a refuge from the flies in summer. There are no 
better callers of the moose anywhere than the Mic-Mac 
Indians. From the 20th of September to the 20th of 
October is the season for moose calling. This is the rut- 
ting season of the animal, and the hunter, for his own 
base purposes, imitates the amorous roars of the cow, 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 5 



which she utters periodically to make known her where- 
abouts to the bull. The call of a cow, which the hunter 
imitates through a horn or trumpet made of birch bark, is 
a series of grunts or groans, winding up with a prolonged, 
dismal and rather unearthly roar, which in calm weather 
can be heard distinctly at a distance of two or three miles. 
Bull moose are very pugnacious in the rutting season, and 
often fight desperately. Sometimes their massive antlers 
become interlocked, death ensues, and the remains of the 
deadly rivals discovered in the woods tell the story of their 
fatal fight. General Rowan, in his Sportsman in Canada, 
tells the following story of one' of his moose calling ex- 
periences in Nova Scotia : "I was calling in a little barren 
or open space in the woods, and during a quarter of an hour 
of breathless suspense I could hear two bulls advancing to- 
wards me from different directions, and both so near that it 
was a toss-up which would come first. At last one fellow 
came out into the open and stood defiantly awaiting the ap- 
proach of his rival, whom he could plainly hear rampaging 
through the neighboring thicket. Had I been able to con- 
trol my impatience for a minute or two, 1 should no doubt 
have seen a set-to between these gigantic beasts ; but it is 
a hard matter for the sportsman to keep his finger off the 
trigger of his rifle when a beast some seventeen or eighteen 
hands high, and with a pair of antlers five feet in the 
stretch, lying back on his withers, stands broadside on 
within fifty yards. The temptation was too much for me, 
and as I fired I heard the horns of his would be antagonist 
crashing through the alder bushes not fifty yards off. After 
getting his death wound he never moved while one might 
count thirty, and then, lurching heavily once or twice like a 
boat in a sea, he came down with a crash, stone dead. On 
another occasion a wounded bull charged me repeatedly, in 
a most determined but rather blundering way. Fortunately 
I was in the woods and had no difficulty in avoiding his at- 
tacks by dodging round the trees. Had it been in the open, 
I might not have fared so well." 

Some of the finest moose hunting of the province 
afforded by the Cumberland district ; Parrsboro, where good 
guides can be obtained, being the best centre to work from. 



6 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



Excellent moose grounds are in the mountainous peninsula, 
running westward from Parrsboro, and washed by Minas 
Channel and Chignecto Bay. Perhaps the most successful 
hunting in this section has been had down about the head- 
waters of Sand River and Apple River. Professor Roberts 
says that in the Plains of the Five Islands district, some 
fifteen miles east of Parrsboro, one may frequently get a. 
caribou. The Bridgewater and Liverpool region is a favorite 
one for moose, whose haunts are usually to be reached by 
drives of from 25 to 50 miles from Bridgewater. Other 
moose regions are in the vicinity of Kempt, and back oir 
Bear River, about sixteen miles from Annapolis. 

Ducks haunt all the lakes in autumn, and snipe and 
plover frequent the open country by the sea. Ducks and 
geese are shot in March, and there is good duck shooting 
also in September and October. Woodcock, snipe, part- 
ridge, grouse and plover are shot in autumn, when the 
morning air begins to nip and the leaves change color. Cock 
and snipe shooting begins on August 20th, but partridge are 
protected till September 15th. Persons not domiciled in 
Nova Scotia require to take out a license before shooting 
game within the limits of the province. Excellent cock 
covers are to be found close to Halifax, at Hammond's Plains 
and Preston ; also about Waverley, along the old Guysboro 
Road and at Porter's Lake. Snipe are abundant about 
Preston, Cole Harbor, Lawrencetown and Chezzetcook. 
Golden and silver plover frequent the harbors and are parti- 
cularly abundant about Musquodoboit, Clam Harbor and 
the river mouths further east. Ducks are abundant along 
Bear River and the basin of Annapolis. Along the fringes 
of both North and South Mountains are cock, snipe and 
partridge ; and drives of eight miles from Annapolis to 
Perotte, or twelve miles to Dalhousie, will place one in a 
country where birds are abundant and little hunted. There 
is cock and partridge shooting within easy reach of Kent- 
ville'and ducks frequent all the Minas shores. Both wood- 
cock and duck shooting is good near Parrsboro, with some of 
the best snipe, plover and curlew shooting in America. Of 
the game and fish of the wilderness extending from Yar- 
mouth into Annapolis county, and lying north of what is 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 7 



known as the lake region of the province, Mr. Charles 
Hallock says that it is in every way superior to the Adiron 
clacks. 

If one wants bears, he will find them by driving from 
Kentville to New Ross, and there making his headquarters, 
<>r they may be found in the Parrsboro district. 

The Island of Prince Edward offers better angling than 
hunting to the sportsman, and this is dealt with farther on, 
but very good bird shooting is to be had on the west side of 
the island, and also not very far from Charlottetown, though 
there is no big game, All kinds of wild fowl frequent the 
coasts and woodcock and plover are plentiful in their season. 

Game in New Brunswick. 

The patriotic New Brunswickers who are at the head of 
the Fish and Game department of that province do not 
hesitate to claim that " the province of New Brunswick has 
more big game to the square mile of its territory than any 
province of Canada, — the land" of big game." Without dis- 
cussing the correctness or otherwise of this boast, it must be 
admitted that the big game of that highly favored province 
has not only held its own during recent years, but that it has 
very largely increased. Old guides and hunters allege that 
it is more abundant in some localities to day than it was in 
their early experience. This is probably true of moose and 
is certainly so of caribou. Red deer, which were formerly 
rather scarce, are reported more abundant every year. 

In the interior of the province, vast tracts of forest 
remain as Nature made them, and are the homes of the 
caribou, the moose and the deer. Of nearly seventeen and a 
half millions of acres in New Brunswick, nearly seven 
millions are still ungranted and unsettled, and at least one 
third of the province is good hunting ground. The facilities 
for reaching the best of these hunting grounds are quite good, 
owing to the lines of railway which traverse the country in 
every direction. In some instances a railway may be found 
in the very heart of a big game country, and moose have 
sometimes been killed by the trains of the Intercolonial 
Railway. 



8 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



Of the fifteen counties into which New Brunswick is- 
divided, moose are found in at least twelve, and either moose 
or caribou in all but two. Either moose, caribou or deer, and 
in most instances all three, are found in every county. 
Taking a map of the province for reference, the best moose 
grounds are found to the east and north of the River St. John, 
north of Kings county, and extending to the northern 
boundaries of the province. Here there is practically a vast 
game preserve running 150 miles to the northward and 
having in some places a width of more than a 100 miles east 
and west. Deer are found to some extent in this territory r 
but they are more abundant to the west of the River St. John,, 
in the counties of York, Charlotte and Carlton. Each year,, 
however, deer are increasing to the eastward of the river3 r 
and are now becoming plenty in the counties of Kings, Queens, 
and Northumberland. 

The New Brunswick moose not only attains a great size, 
but is, in most instances, a very shapely animal. Bull 
moose with a weight of 1,000 pounds and upwards are fre- 
quently the reward of the hunter, and there is reason to 
believe that still larger ones, rendered wary by age and ex- 
perience, successfully elude pursuit and are not to be 
deceived by the most skilful caller. The claims as to size 
have been modest. The head of the moose shot by Sir 
Harry Burrard, a number of years ago, had a spread of 63: 
inches from tip to tip of the antlers. The mounted head 
was presented to the then Prince of Wales, His Majesty 
King Edward VII, and it may be that this distinction has. 
led to it being quoted as the record moose in respect to size. 
As a matter of fact, this horn measurement has been exceed- 
ed in a number of instances. In the season of 1897, Mr. 
Decatur, of Portsmouth, N. H., killed a moose on the Dead- 
water Serpentine, Tobique, which had a horn measurement, 
of 66 inches, weighed about 900 pounds and was in every 
respect a beautiful animal. A much heavier moose, with a 
measurement of 64 inches from tip to tip of the antlers, was. 
also killed on the Tobique in the same season by Mr. W. D. 
Winsor, of Philadelphia. Others are yet to be heard from, 
in respect to the size of the game, but if the record of 66- 
inches has not been beaten, it is quite likely it can be. 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



Some of the finest moose, however, have a spread of 
antlers of less than 50 inches, and very much less than that 
will satisfy the average sportsman. A splendid bull moose 
shot by Dr. Heber Bishop, of Boston, in December, 1897, 
had a spread of only 43 inches, though it had a weight of 
1,000 pounds and was in every respect a magnificent speci- 
men of what the forests of New Brunswick have to offer the 
sportsman. 

The bull moose mounted and sent by the Provincial 
Government to the Sportmen's Show held in Boston, in 
March, 1898, gives a good idea of what is considered a fair 
sized animal. It had a spread of 50^ inches from tip to tip of 
the antlers, a length of nine feet and a height of five feet, 
seven inches at the fore shoulder. It was estimated to weigh 
about 1,000 pounds when it was shot. 

One of the mounted heads, sent as part of the provincial 
exhibit on the same occasion, had a spread of 58J inches 
from tip to tip of antlers, the measurement being taken 
straight across and not diagonally, between extreme tips. 
By the latter mode of measurement, which is that frequently 
used, these antlers would have a spread of over 61 inches. 

In a brief account of this kind it would be out of the 
question to attempt to give anything like a description of 
the game districts of the province. Coming from the 
United States, the objective point of the traveller may 
be St. John or Fredericton, either of which can be 
made a centre from which to reach many of the best 
game regions, a trip to any of which is likely to be 
attended with good results, always supposing that the 
hunter has an average amount of skill, and what is of prime 
importance, a good guide. Both cities have excellent hotels 
and it is easy for a stranger to obtain full information in regard 
to the nearest hunting grounds and their respective merits. 
Good guides are not hard to find, though there may be times 
when the best of them have so many engagements that they 
are hard to secure. To make sure of them it may be well to 
write for names to L. B. Knight, of St. John, N. B., chief 
game commissioner of the province, or to some of the hotel, 
proprietors, and to make an engagement in advance. 



10 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



St. John and Fredericton are specially mentioned in this 
connection, as being the principal cities, but the objective 
point of the sportsman may be any one of many other towns 
and villages along the lines of railway. In some instances, 
parties come to the province by way of Quebec, through the 
Temiscouata region, with such places as Edmunston, 
Andover or Woodstock for their destination. Or they may 
come by one of several other routes, making their head- 
quarters at a town or village in any section of the province. 
On the line of the Intercolonial, are such important places as 
Newcastle, Moncton, Chatham, Bathurst, Dalhousie and 
■Campbellton, while at the south-western corner of the pro- 
vince is St. Stephen, a live and energetic town, on the border 
of the United States. In all of these and in many other 
places, the traveller can get all the supplies required for life 
in the woods. 

The question of where to obtain supplies is one that must 
be determined according to circumstances. For some 
districts, the better plan would be to get fitted out in the 
larger cities, rather than to trust to the chances of getting 
what is wanted at the town or village nearest the hunting 
grounds. These are exceptional cases, however, as a rule, 
and especially in the case of the best known grounds, all 
the requisites for camp life can begot in the town from which 
the sportsman and his guides make their start. 

Fishery Commissioner D. G. Smith, of New Brunswick, 
at the last annual meeting of the North American Fish and 
Game Protective Association, in January 1904, furnished the 
following interesting information on this subject : — "Respect- 
ing big game in New Brunswick, I am glad to be able to 
report that it is increasing ; not only so, but it is becoming a 
more valuable asset of the Province each succeeding year. 

The number of big game licenses issued in the season of 
1902 was 1,513 to residents and 272 to non-residents, while 
in 1903 it was 1,858 to residents and 338 to non-residents, 
being increases of 345 and 66 in the two classes respectively. 

Until the season of 1903 — last year— guides and 
camp help were not required to take out licenses. Last year 
the law was changed and there were 166 guides' and 102 camp 
.helps' licenses issued. 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. llf 



The game revenue in 1902 was $10,855.95 ; last year it 
was $16,929.48, or an increase of $6,073.53— more than 50 per 
cent — and the prospect is that a similar ratio of increase will 
mark next year's operations. 

I think it is my duty to correct a misapprehension in 
regard to New Brunswick as a caribou country. While the 
caribou is not so evenly distributed over the wild land3 of the 
province as is the moose, yet we have some of the finest and 
largest caribou areas in Canada. Sportsmen of the United 
States who have hunted caribou in New Brunswick do not 
need to be told of this for they know it, but many who have 
not so hunted, do * * * No license is required for 
hunting any animals save moose and caribou. Deer hunting 
is absolutely free, although, personally, I think it should not 
be. Several material changes were made at the last session 
of the legislature in the New Brunswick game law. The open 
season for moose, caribou and deer, which was formerly from 
15th September until the end of December was shortened by 
one month. It is now from the 15th September until the 30th 
of November. It is, as it always -has been, unlawful to hunt 
or kill moose or caribou in the night time, or to hunt or kill 
any cow moose or calf moose under a year old. No hunter is 
permitted to kill more than one moose one caribou and two 
deer in any one season." 

As an indication of the large increase in the number of 
moose, the experiences of Mr. Henry Braithwaite, one of the 
best known of the New Brunswick guides maybe cited. He 
was absent about three weeks last fall visiting his camps on 
the Miramichi, of which he has about twenty-five in 
different parts of the district. During his tour in the woods 
he saw no less than 84 moose by actual count, many of them 
of enormous size, while the year before he saw only 34 in 
the same space of time, though this was then considered a 
very large number. In 1901 he only saw 27 in the space of 
a month. On one day in 1903 he saw nearly a score of the 
big fellows near one of his camps. 

Intending visitors to Canada after moose and caribou, 
who have not yet hunted in New Brunswick, may be in- 
terested in knowing how the territory just described may be 
reached. Newcastle and Chatham are both good points^ 



12 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



from which to start for the Miramichi country, and both 
are situated on the line of the Intercolonial Railway of 
Canada, whieh may be taken either at Quebec or Halifax. 
Taking Newcastle as a starting point, the best moose and 
caribou country, with some deer, is that to the west and 
northwest. Portions of this region, such as that on the 
southwest Miramichi and its tributaries, may be con- 
veniently reached by going from either Chatham or New- 
castle, or even from Fredericton on the Canada Eastern 
Railway to Boiestown, Doaktown, or one or two other sta- 
tions which an; good points of departure for the hunting 
grounds. In other instances it may be better to take the 
road direct from Newcastle for points to the north and north- 
west. This is a matter which each sportsman can settle for 
himself after he has decided upon his objective point in the 
woods, and on which he can easily get advice in either of 
the first mentioned places. Supposing one to be at New- 
castle, one of the finest of hunting grounds lies to the west- 
ward, in the vicinity of Guagus Lake, on the Little South- 
west Miramichi. The game region here is a large one and 
affords ample space for several hunting parties at the same 
time. It is reached by taking a team at -Newcastle and fol- 
lowing the road to the lakes, a distance of fifty miles. This 
district can also be reached from Fredericton by way of 
Boiestown. 

Another good moose and caribou country is that on the 
Northwest Miramichi which has a very wide reputation. 
There are three distinct districts in this part of the immense 
county of Northumberland, and all of them offer good sport. 
The first is that around the Portage and Tomogonops rivers 
It is twenty-five miles from Newcastle by a good team road. 
Though very easy of access, this district has been very 
little hunted. It is an excellent moose country, and forms 
part of what has long been famous as a fine caribou region. 
The Little River and Mountain Brook lake district lies to 
the westward of that just mentioned. Both moose and 
caribou are found here in large numbers, and this part of the 
country is spoken of by those who have visited it as a verit- 
able hunter's paradise. The distance from Newcastle to the 
lakes is forty miles, of which thirty-eight miles can be driven 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 13 



by team, the remaining two miles consisting of a carry over 
a good trail. The Bald Mountains District, to the south- 
west of that last described, is called one of the greatest 
moose and caribou resorts in New Brunswick, and has a 
wide reputation outside of the Province. It is reached by a 
journey of sixty miles from Newcastle. Of this distance, 
thirty-eight miles is over a good team road to Camp Adams, 
and the remainder of the way can be either travelled in 
canoes or over a " tote" road. Some time ago a visitor to 
this district counted 147 caribou in three days, and on the 
same trip, thirteen moose were seen in one day. The 
country to the north and the northeast of Newcastle includes 
that around the boundary of Gloucester county as well as a 
territory to the south of Northumberland, Moose, caribou 
and deer are all found in this part of the country. The 
principal districts hereabouts are Bartibog, the Millstream, 
Tabusintac and Eskedelloc rivers. The Bartibog or Barti- 
bogue district lies north of Newcastle, and though of itself 
it does not cover a very large area, it has a well deserved 
reputation for moose and caribo.u, and especially for the 
latter. Here are to be found barrens, similar to those of the 
interior of Newfoundland, and to these the caribou resort as 
natural feeding grounds. Bartibogue has also quite a repu- 
tation for bears. This district may be approached both by 
rail and highway from Newcastle and Chatham. A part of 
this hunting ground may be reached by a drive of sixteen 
miles from Newcastle, but to visit the more northerly por- 
tion it is better to take rail to Bartibogue station. 

It is no uncommon thing for caribou to be shot within a 
distance of three or four miles of Dauglastown, on the north 
side of the Miramichi River, between Newcastle and Chat- 
ham. The Tabusintac and Eskedelloc district lies to the 
north and east of Bartibogue, and is partly in the county of 
Gloucester. It has an abundance of moose, caribou and 
deer, and is very easily reached both by rail and highway 
from Newcastle and Chatham. A drive of 25 miles on the 
post road from Newcastle, or a few miles less when Chatham 
is the starting point, will take one to the Eskedelloc which 
flows into the Tabusintac. This highway passes through 
Bartibogue and goes to Bathurst. Much of its way in both 



U4 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



♦counties is through a fine game region around the Bartibogue, 
Eskedelloc, Tabusintac and other streams. As many as 106 

-caribou have been seen here in one day. The northern part 

•of this district may also be reached by going to Red Pine 
Station on the Intercolonial, 31 miles from Newcastle, and 
the central portion from Bartibogue Station, 21 miles from 
Newcastle. The Mill Stream district is only nine miles from 
Newcastle, while to the south and west of the town is a 

•good game country on both sides of the Southwest Mira- 
michi. That on the south side of the river is the better 
known. It includes the district watered by the Cains River 
and by Sabbies River, a tributary of Cains. This is a great 
moose and caribou region and is also one of the best sections 
of the country for hunting red deer. There is much burnt 
land hereabouts, and on this there is a young growth of 
hardwood, which is sought out by the big game. To reach 
this country, one may go to Rogers villc Station, on the In- 
tercolonial Railway, 16 miles from Chatham Junction, from 
which the hunting ground is nine miles distant. Another 
route is to go to Blaekville, on the Canada Eastern Railway, 
20 miles from Chatham Junction, from which point the 
journey to the game section is nine miles. The ground may 

-also be reached by way of Doaktown, on the Canada Eastern, 
44 miles from Chatham Junction. 

North of the Southwest Miramichi, and easily reached 
from Blaekville, Doaktown, and other stations on the line of 
the Canada Eastern, is the moose, caribou and deer district 
of the Renous and Dungarvon rivers. The latter mentioned 
is an especially good part of the country for deer. South 
and south-east of Chatham to the Kent county line, and ex- 
tending from Barnaby River as far east as Baie du Vin, is a 
moose and caribou country reached by a highway drive of 
about three hours from Chatham. Good guides are easily 
procured at either Chatham, Newcastle or Fredericton. The 
usual wages are from two to three dollars per day, but those 
most in demand sometimes receive as much as five dollars a 
day. 

Game birds aFe plentiful in many parts of New Bruns- 
wick, more especially curlew, brant snipe, ducks, geese and 
• other varieties of wild fowl. Excellent shooting grounds are 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 15 



at Eel River, twelve miles from Dalhousie, also in the vicinity 
of Campbellton, the coast line of Gloucester county, Dor- 
chester river and marshes and the head of the Bay of Fundy. 
The killing of partridges is prohibited for a couple of years. 

Hunting in Quebec. 

There is probably no better sport to be offered to sports- 
men anywhere than in the province of Quebec. Its forests 
are prolific in the grandest game of the continent even after* 
centuries of reckless hunting. Moose and caribou abound, 
while the Virginian or Red Deer has increased to such pro- 
portions that it has become a veritable nuisance. 

All non-residents of the Province desiring to hunt there- 
in must first obtain a license from the Government at Quebec 
or from one of its authorized agents, the cost of which runs 
from ten to twenty-five dollars. But there is an exception 
to this rule in the case of non-residents who lease hunting 
territories from the government. For the lease of these wild 
forest lands as hunting territories, the Government charges 
$2.00 per square mile and upwards per annum, and some 
clubs and private individuals have several hundred square 
miles of territory each under lease. In every direction from 
Quebec, the capital of the Province, good hunting is to be had, 
— north, south, east and west, North of the provincial 
capital is the famous Lake St. John country which has been 
attracting visitors from all parts of the world since the con- 
struction of the railway from Quebec to Lake St. John, a 
decade and a half ago. This railway crosses not only a corner 
of the Laurentides National Park, but also the entire chain 
of the Laurentian Mountains, a wild country abounding in all 
kinds of big game and fur-bearing animals. Mountain, 
forest, lake and river compose the entire interior of this 
section of country, much of which is under lease to fish and 
game clubs, the membership of which includes many of the 
most prominent American sportsmen. 

The whole country from St. Raymond north to Lake St. 
John and to the Saguenay is full of game. A few clubs, in- 
cluding the Triton, which owns a large territory south-east 
of Lake Edward, have leased the exclusive right to the hunt- 
ing upon their limits, but by far the larger part of the 



16 Fish and Gtame Attractions of Canada. 



country is free, at least so far as hunting is concerned, to all 
comers, and the guides are usually well informed as to where 
the game is preserved. 

Riviere a Pierre station, fifty -six miles from Quebec, is 
the centre of a good moose country. So abundant are these 
antlered monarchs of the forest that some few years ago, 
. nearly thirty of them was ruthlessly murdered for their 
hides by the Indians in one winter. A better system of pro- 
• tection now prevails. Caribou are found in large numbers 
all over the territory about the next succeeding stations on 
the line of railway — Talbot, Laurentides, Miguick, Beaudet 
and Stadacona. Lake Edward is in the centre of another 
excellent large game country. Here a caribou was taken 
alive in the water in Tune, 1899, and a few days later a 
moose was also lassoed, but towed the steam launch to which 
he was yoked ashore, and made good his escape. Several 
moose and caribou are killed here every season, and the 
winter hunting is almost always good. The large extent of 
country about the height of land between Lake Edward and 
Kiskisink is over-run with game and is accessible to hunters. 

In all the big game country so far described, there is 
considerable bird life and other species of game as well. 
Partridges are abundant everywhere. Ducks, including a 
good proportion of the much sought black variety, are found 
upon all the lakes and streams of this abundantly watered 
country, and so are snipe and sand larks. Hares abound, 
and sometimes a black bear may be met and killed, while the 
skin of a fox may often be the reward of a lucky shot. 

The Chicoutimi branch of the Quebec and Lake St. 
John Railway passes in close proximity to a number of dis- 
tricts well stocked with large game. Caribou are quite 
numerous in the Lac de la Belle Riviere district, and some of 
the best sport in the province has often been had here. The 
guides from Lake St. John are the best for this territory and 
are furnished at the Hotel Roberval. 

Chicoutimi is the centre of another good hunting dis- 
trict, extending for a considerable distance upon both sideg 
of the Saguenay river. 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 17 



The game laws of the Province of Quebec provide as 
follows : — 

Non-residents of the province must not hunt therein, 
unless they are bona fide members of a fish and game club in- 
corporated under provincial laws, and hunting upon territory 
leased by such club from the government of the province for 
hunting purposes, or unless they have obtained a hunting 
license from the government, for which a charge of $25 for 
the season is made. Non-residents who require only a tew 
days hunting will be charged only $1.50 per day. Leases of 
hunting territories not to exceed four hundred square miles 
each may be obtained by individuals or clubs from $1 per 
square mile up. 

The close season for caribou is from 1st February to 
1st September, except north and east of the Saguenay 
where the close season only opens on the 1st March ; and 
that for moose and deer is from the 1st January to the 1st 
September, except in the western district of the province, 
including the counties of Ottawa and Pontiac, where the 
close season is from 1st December to 1st October. Only one 
bull moose, two caribou and two red deer may be killed 
during one hunting season by any one hunter. 

Wild ducks must not be killed between the 1st 
March and 15th September. Partridge (birch or spruce) 
between 15th December and 1st September. Whice part- 
ridge and ptarmigan, between 1st February and 1st Novem- 
ber. Woodcock, snipe, plover, etc., between 1st February 
and l8t September. 

A large part of the country between Lake St. John on 
the north, Quebec on the south, the Saguenay river on the 
east, and the line of the Quebec and Lake St. John railway 
on the west, is comprised within the limits of the Laurentides 
National Park, a vast fish and game preserve set apart by 
government, and containing a superficies of 2,640 square 
miles or 1,689,400 acres. In one part of this park licenses 
are issued to visiting sportsmen for the purpose of enabling 
them to hunt caribou in the fall of the year, and at this point, 
known as the Gardens, which is situated to the north-east of 
the city of Quebec, about two days' drive, caribou are most 
abundant. 



18 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



Moose are plentiful in the forests along the St. Maurice 
river, west of the Lake St. John country, and here also many 
American fishing and hunting clubs have taken up territories 
under lease, and constructed convenient club houses for the 
accommodation of their members. 

The same may be said of the Ottawa district and of its 
enormous back country, the Mattawa, Kippewa and Lake 
Temiscamingue regions. Moose, caribou and deer roam there 
in practically undisturbed numbers. Partridges, also ducks 
and wild geese in their seasons, abound, and a liberal number 
of wolves and bears add a pleasing variety should the hunter 
need a spice to his pastime. 

The entire country north of the Ottawa is one of lakes. 
In the forest surrounding these lake3, are to be found in very 
great abundance all the game above mentioned. American 
sportsmen show their appreciation of this remarkable district 
by coming here annually in ever increasing numbers to enjoy 
the sport of hunting large game. 

All the country watered by the Dumoine and Magani- 
cipi and neighboring rivers is full of large game constituting 
a phenomenal hunting ground for sportsmen. In the neigh- 
borhood of Caugnawaga lake in the season of 1897, one party 
of sportsmen, who were only ten days in the woods killed 
four moose, of which three were splendid bulls, in addition 
to good numbers of deer. A few summers ago, before the 
passage of the law restricting to one the number of moose to 
be killed by each hunter, numerous hunting parties obtained 
licenses from the government to kill large game in the dis- 
trict, and the reports made by them according to law make 
interesting reading. For instance, one party of two people 
was out in the Dumoine and Maganacipi country for five days 
and killed four moose and thirteen deer ; another killed 
seventeen deer, another individual in five days killed seven 
deer, a fourth, in ten days, on Thirty-one mile lake, killed 
nine deer, while two others each of whom was five days out, 
killed, the one eleven and the other twelve deer. In five 
days two gentlemen killed two moose near lake Temiscamin- 
gue, and six others in the course of a few days' hunting in 
the townships of Mulgrave and Lathbury, in the An Lievre 
district, killed 17 deer, of which 13 were bucks. 



A calm morning". 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 19 



The upper Ottawa River, f dividing Ontario and 
Quebec, which is a succession of long reaches and lakes with 
intervening rapids, is followed north of Mattawa, it will be 
found to traverse a wild region very similar in general ap- 
pearance, and with game as plentiful as in the country just 
described. 

The Lake Temiscamingue branch of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway follows the left bank of the river from Mat- 
tawa to Temiscamingue at the foot of Lake Temiscamingue, 
where it branches off to Kippewa on Lake Kippewa. By 
this route one reaches a country of moose, caribou and 
bear. 

The town of Mattawa (a name borrowed from the In- 
dians, and signifying " The Forks ") is one of the best points 
on that portion of the line to fit out for an extended shooting 
or fishing excursion and well-informed guides can likewise 
be secured. 

The upper country is noted for big game, moose being, 
for them plentiful, and deer everywhere. Black bears are 
liable to show at any time, and moving through the woods, 
you will flush ruffed grouse in numbers — singly, by twos and 
threes, and whole coveys of from nine to fifteen birds. 
Wing shooting, owing to the nature of the cover, is very 
difficult, and the best weapon for all-round work is a repeat- 
ing rifle. With this one can cut the heads off the birds as 
they sit, for when put up they almost invariably tree. 

So far we have spoken only of the hunting territories on 
the north shore of the St. Lawrence in the province of 
Quebec. There are many attractive localities for the 
disciples of St. Hubert in the country south of the river, and 
some of the best of these are found near the far eastern 
limits of the province, in the wild and mountainous peninsula 
of Gaspe. Here the lordly moose roams practically undis- 
turbed, over thousands of square miles of territory, portions 
of which are likely to be soon opened up however to sports- 
men by the construction of the proposed Atlantic and 
Western Railway. 

Almost the whole southern part of the province of Quebec 
adjacent to the State of Maine is an unsettled wilderness and 
full of large game. A good colonization road runs from St. 



20 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



Philippe de Neri, a station on the Intercolonial railway, for 22 
miles to Lac de l'Est, which is partly in Maine and partly in 
Canada, and traverses a country in which moose and deer are 
plentiful. Red deer may be found in abundance in all parts 
of the counties of Montmagny and L'Islet, and also in the 
neighborhood of Lake Megantic, and in townships of Spaulding 
and Marston, in fact in all the wilder districts of St. Francis 
and the counties of Megantic, Beauce and Compton. Some 
idea of the enormous increase of these deer in late years may 
be formed by the fact that constant complaints are made by 
farmers that they are completely ruining their crops. They 
come right out of the woods, into civilization, approaching 
close to the residences and barns of the farmers, and feed upon 
their crops. In addition to deer, large numbers of caribou are 
also found in the same districts, particularly in the Lake 
Megantic region. Moose and red deer are plentiful in the 
district of Beauce which is traversed by the Quebec Central 
Railway. 

All through the country traversed by the Temiscouata 
Railway, and especially in the region known as the Squattecks, 
and in the neighbourhood of Lakes Temiscouata and Touladi, 
there are vast quantities of large game. So numerous are the 
moose in this district that it is with the greatest difficulty that 
they can be protected from the pot hunters who ruthlessly 
slaughter the noble beasts for their skins, whenever the 
opportunity offers. 

Along the shores of the Patapedia and in the valley of the 
headwaters of the Matapedia river in the interior of Rimouski 
and Matane, there are thousands and thousands of caribou. 

Game in Ontario. 

Much of what has been said of the hunting territories of 
the upper Ottawa under the heading of " Game in Quebec." 
applies with equal force to those parts of the Mattawa and 
Temiscamingue territories and the regions adjoining them in 
the province of Ontario, the waters of the Ottawa being the 
dividing line. The Coulonge district, bordering upon the 
Ottawa is quite noted for its big game. 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 21 



It may be well, however, before glancing at the leading 
hunting attractions of Ontario for the hunter sportsman, to 
see what the laws are which govern his sport in this province. 
Cow moose, young moose, young caribou and young deer are 
protected at all times. Moose and caribou may only be hunt- 
ed between the 15th of October and the 15th of November, 
except south of the Canadian Pacific Railway between Mattawa 
and Port Arthur, when the open season is from November 1 st 
to November 16th. Red deer may be hunted during the first 
fifteen days of November. 

For some years there was a close season for moose in 
Ontario, and the result is to been seen in a very large increase 
in the number of these animals. The last report of the 
Ontario Game Commission refers specially to the great abund- 
ance of both moose and deer in the northern parts of the pro- 
vince, which is attracting sportsmen in increasing numbers 
from both England and the United States. As an evidence of 
the popularity of Ontario as a sportsman's paradise and of the 
valuable assets possessed by the province in the shape of its 
game, the fact is noted that during last year 259 non-resident 
licenses and 5,707 deer-hunting and 153 moose licenses were 
issued. One express company carried the carcases of 2,950 
deer, during the season of 190$, and another one, 416, and 93 
head of moose were reported killed by licensed hunters. Yet 
the Chairman of the Commission declares that these figures 
give but an inadequate idea of the total number killed during 
the season. The Chief Game Warden believes that from all 
sources, fully 15,000 deer were killed last year in the pro- 
vince, and that twice the number of moose reported were 
killed by settlers and Indians. Moose, from all accounts, have 
been seen further south than ever before. Ducks are fairly 
plentiful in all parts of the province, but quails and partridge 
were not so plentiful last year as usual, though generally they 
are quite abundant in most parts of the province. 

It is worthy of note that the Ontario Game Commission 
has made an importation of that noble game bird the Caper- 
cailzie. The birds were set at liberty in the Algonquin Park, 
a spot considered by those competent to judge, admirably 
adapted by Nature for their requirements. If these birds do 



22 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



well, as it is fully expected that they will, they will prove a 
very valuable addition to the game birds of the province, 

The Rideau lakes and river, within a short distance of 
the city of Ottawa, afford very good sport with duck and snipe, 
while a short distance inland from the margin of the lake a 
fair number of deer may be obtained. Excellent sport can also 
be had by the tourist who desires to combine the comforts of 
civilized life with the pleasures of the chase, in the regions of 
Parry Sound, Georgian Bay and the Muskoka lakes, which 
are described at greater length further on. 

Sharbot Lake, easily reached from Ottawa, is a noted 
locality for ducks, which seem to make it a resting-place dur- 
ing their journey to their breeding grounds farther to the 
north. Very heavy bags are frequently made there. The ex- 
tensive chain of lakes in the neighborhood of Peterboro and 
lying to the north of the river Trent afford good sport to the 
fowler. All these localities are accessible by both the Cana- 
dian Pacific and Grand Trunk railways. Northeast of Have- 
lock is a fine sporting country for deer and grouse. This is 
particularly true of the vicinity of Tonomong lake, which may 
be reached by a five hours' dr^ve from Havelock over a very 
fair road. Ruffled grouse, wood-duck and hare are to be 
found almost anywhere, and there are plenty of deer and not a 
few bears in the vicinity. 

Farther to the west, in a portion of the country lying be- 
tween London and Chatham, wild turkeys may still be found. 
Quail abound throughout the district. Woodcock are also to 
be found in scattered localities, while a great variety of water- 
fowl abound in the western marshes. 

Below Chatham are the Lake St. Clair marshes, where a 
good shot will frequently kill over a hundred big duck in a 
day's shooting. The finest portions of the marshes are strictly 
preserved, but good mixed bags of woodcock, snipe, quail 
plover and duck may be made at other points on the lake. 
Wild geese are plentiful in the spring and are usually shot 
from blinds erected on the line of flight. Hotel accommodation 
can be had in the neighborhood. Good quail shooting is to be 
had in Essex county. 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 23 



Mattawa, on the boundry line between Ontario and Quebec, 
is a good starting point for the big game country. Deer 
abound in the vicinity, as also do black bear, while moose are 
as plentiful as that noble animal can ever be reasonably 
expected to be. 

Lake Temiskamingue, already referred to under the 
chapter devoted to Quebec, can easily be reached from this 
point, and following up the main line of railway, we reach 
North Bay, within easy distance of which, splendid sport with 
fur and feathered game can be had. 

A number of splendid big game regions, inhabited by 
moose and bear, may be more or less easily reached from Lake 
Temiskamingue. These include the beautiful Lake Tamagam- 
ing, and the far famed Kippewa country, noted for the very 
large specimens of moose that have been killed there. It is 
certainly one of the very best moose countries known. Lake 
Kippewa is reached by rail in one hour from Lake 
Temiskamingue station. Hotel accommodations can be had at 
Kippewa, and here, too, guides can be engaged and canoes and 
other outlits secured by hunting parties, while a bewildering 
choice of canoe trips is here open to the sportsman. 

North Ray, already referred to, is situated upon Lake 
Nipissing, and is 46 miles from Mattawa. As a shooting 
ground the Nipissing country ranks very high. There are 
any number of deer and ruffled grouse all around the lake, 
besides quite a few moose, caribou and bear, and upon what is 
known as the " long arm" of Nipissing, good duck shooting 
may be had in the fall. The district about Callander, and the 
very best portions of the Muskoka deer country are near at 
hand, and those of Parry Sound lie between this lake and the 
Georgian Bay, and they are among the best known. 

One of the best points in the Nipissing district is the 
country around Sturgeon River, distant from North Bay, 
twenty- three miles. Hunting parties for several years pasts 
have returned home from this region laden down with the- 
spoils of the chase. 

The whole country lying north of the line of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway for its entire distance, from 
where its bids adieu to the valley of the Ottawa at 



24 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



Mattawa, 200 miles west of Ottawa city to the 
western boundary of the province, some thirty miles 
west of Rat Portage, is practically an unbroken wilder- 
ness, an immense extent of mountain and valley, of lake and 
river, extending to the Arctic ocean. Its loneliness is only 
broken by the trading posts of the Hudson Bay Company and 
the wigwam of the aborigine, but so thoroughly has it been 
explored by the employees of that company that the initiated 
can paddle his light canoe with comparatively short portages 
over the entire vast extent. In nearly the whole of this large 
area, moose and caribou roam in countless numbers, the 
former being now numerous in neai ly all the unsettled parts 
of the province, while caribou are found in greatest numbers 
to the north and west of the chain of waters formed by Lake 
Nipissing and French and Mattawan rivers. 

The Algonquin Park occupies the height of land between 
the valley of the Ottawa and the Georgian Bay and includes 
within its boundaries the headwaters of all the principal 
streams in the Huron and Ottawa territory and also the great 
Opeongo lake. It embraces some 21 townships of fifty thou- 
sand acres each. These million and more acres of land and 
water have been set apart for the sole purpose of propagating 
game, conserving the water sources and as a sanitarium. It 
is claimed that in the park and its environs there are to-day, 
at a conservative estimate, not less than 3,000 head of moose 
and a much larger number of red deer. It is surrounded on 
all sides by a well-settled country, and is easily accessible 
either by canoe or travelled roads, besides having the Canada 
Atlantic Railway passing through its centre. The section of 
country lying between Georgian Bay and the Ottawa river, 
heretofore described as the Huron and Ottawa territory is 
the principal home of the red deer. They herd together and 
roam all over that district in countless numbers and are also , 
numerous in many other sections and rapidly increasing. 

Amongst the more attractive regions for the deer hunter 
may be mentioned " Muskoka Lakes," " The Lake of Bays," 
" Magnetawan River," " Among the 30,000 Islands of the 
Oeorgian Bay," "The Kawartha Lakes," and the Haliburton , 
district." The Muskoka Lakes comprise the three beautiful 




Graining a deer skin. 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 25 



stretches of water known as lakes Muskoka, Joseph and 
Rousseau, and good hunting may be had in the forests 
adjacent to the shores of the lakes. Lake of Bays District 
is another favorite haunt for the deer hunter, and unlimited 
sport was had in this locality last season. The region along 
the Magnetawan River is also a popular resort. Hundreds 
of hunters go up the eastern arm of Lake Huron, known as 
the Georgian Bay, and strike into the forests that line the 
shores in all directions. 

For the Mu3koka lake district, Rosseau, at the head of 
Lake Rosseau is a good starting point. Deer are usually 
very plentiful and capital sport is to be had. Other good 
points in this region for headquarters are Barnsdale, Port 
Sandfield and Woodington. 

In the Lake of Bays district, sport can be had within a 
few miles of Baysville. The hunting grounds are easily 
reached from Baysville, and while the woods are very dense 
there are good trails leading to the best localities. 

The best hunting grounds on the Magnetawan river are 
reached from Burk's Falls, 171 miles from Toronto. A 
steamer is taken at Burk's Falls for the hunting grounds, one 
of the best of which for deer is reached from Mitchell's 
Landing, a few hundred miles east of the landing. On the 
opposite side of the river there is another runway, which is 
also a good spot for deer. Different runways can be found 
here every day. In the Upper Magnetawan River region, 
the chances for the deer hunter are above the average, and 
there are both good runways and camping grounds all along 
the shore. The country is very wild and specially good 
shooting can be had a few miles from the Ahmic Harbor. 

The Powassan district is reached by Grand Trunk Rail- 
way, 207 miles north of Toronto. It is a most favorable 
locality for the sportsman anil game is plentiful. The 
inhabitants are hospitable and board and guides can be had 
at reasonable rates. Both deer and partridge are abundant. 

The Sunbridge hunting district is west of Sunbridge 
station, the latter being 182 miles north of Toronto. Some 
very fine deer carcases were shipped out of this locality last 
season. Deer are plentiful, especially about Eagle Lake. 



26 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



In the north-western part of the province, the broad 
tracks of forest, lake and rocky barren between Sudbury and 
Fort Williams are worth attention as shooting grounds. 
Black bear, moose, caribou and ruffled grouse are genei-allv 
distributed. The best points are upon the north shore of 
Superior proper ; Jackfish being, perhaps, as good a centre of 
operation as any. 

Westward from Fort William a wild, broken country 
extends to the bound ry line that divides the Province of 
Ontario from that of Manitoba. The best centre for sport 
in this territory is undoubtedly, Lake Wabigoon. A good deal 
of bi« game is very accessible and the wing shooting is 
remarkably fine, especially for sharptail grouse, the common 
chicken of the North-west, which has spread very much to 
the east of the western prairies since the building of the 
railway. 

A point worth noting by those fond of duck shooting 
is the English river, a tribatary of the Winnipeg river, and 
distance about sixty miles north of Rat Portage. Very few 
people have shot there, but one who has done so, and who 
has also shot at many of the best points in Manitoba and the 
north-west, and made heavy bags, declares that the English 
River grounds are the best be ever tried. 

Game in Manitoba and the North=West. 

In the extreme east of Manitoba, in the immediate 
vicinity of and between Rennie and Molson stations, is an 
excellent country for moose, and perhaps one of the surest 
points easily reached from Winnipeg. Bear are also very 
numerous and there are plenty of ruffled and spruce grouse 
and a few caribou. Sportsmen can travel comfortably by 
rail to these grounds in a few hours from Winnipeg. Moose 
are not only to be found in that portion of Manitoba between 
Winnipeg and the Lake of the Woo Is. They are also plenti- 
ful in the vicinity of the Pembina Mountains and the region 
north of Shoal Lake. Unlike those in Nova Scotia and New 
Brunswick, the moose of western Canada do not yard, but 
generally travel in pairs, or at most four together. The 
hunting of them is somewhat difficult, large snowshoes 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 27 



having to be used because of the softness of the snow, which 
does not crust as in the east. The story of a successful 
moose hunt in Manitoba, in the month of October, is 
graphically told by that thorough -going sportsman, Lt.-Col. 
Andrew Haggard, D. S. 0., in his new volume of "Sporting 
Yarns," published by Hutchinson & Co. of London. 

The vast amount of prairie land in Manitobi, nearly a 
thousand miles wide is dotted over with numberless lakes 
and swales, which have been for ceuturies past the resort of 
the migratory water fowl on their journeys to their breeding 
grounds in the far north. The sportsmin who enjoys watch- 
ing th3 working of his well-trained dogs almost as well as the 
shooting itself, will fiud sport of a varied character, and may 
sately count upon a well-filled bag within a few hours' 
journey of Winnipeg. Ducks and gee3e of every variety, 
snipe, golden plover and prairie chickeu abound. 

In the autumn, ducks and other water-fowl literally 
cover every pond and lake. In August, the grey duck and 
merganser make their appavrance, "succeeded in September 
by sea ducks of every description, and during these months 
geese, ducks and prairie fowl take to the stubble fields where 
civilization has reached and are easily shot. Professor 
Macoun states that about forty species of game birds are to 
be seen on the prairie at that season. 

Taking the city of Winnipeg as a starting point, the 
sportsman can have a choice of an infinite variety of trips 
according to the character of the game which he wishes to 
pursue. Everything necessary for these excursions can be 
obtained in the City of Winnipeg. 

Shoal Lake, which is reached by a drive of forty miles 
towards the northwest from Winnipeg, abounds in wild 
fowl, while in the unsettled country to the north of the 
lake, are many blacktail deer, besides moose and elk. 

Thirty-five miles west of Winnipeg, on the line of the 
railway, is Reaburn, where good duck shooting is to be had 
on a lake near by. There are also some prairie chickens and 
plover to be had in the vicinity. 

Whitewater Lake, in Southern Manitoba, is reached 
over the Pembina branch of the C. P. R. , and here, besides 



28 Fisn and Game Attractions of Canada. 



& fair number of chickens, snipe and plover, are thousands 
of geese, ducks and other waterfowl, as well as on the 
neighboring lakes. North of Rock Lake, are the Tiger 
hills of the Pembina range, haunted by elk, mule deer and 
black bear. 

There is no figure of speech in describing Lake Winni- 
peg as a sportsman's paradise. The great marshes which 
extend for miles about the mouth of the Red River, one of 
its tributaries, form one of the most extensive duck grounds 
of the northwest, and they actually swarm with all kinds 
of waterfowl in the season. In the vicinity of Fort 
Alexander, at the mouth of the Winnipeg River, are 
moose, caribou and bear, as well as upon the western shore 
of Lake Winnipeg. Innumerable flocks of geese resort to- 
Big Island and Grassy Narrows, 

Lake Manitoba is also a famous place for waterfowl, 
while chicken, grouse and rabbit shooting is good in the 
neighborhood of Minnesota. 

H. R. H. the Prince of Wales, during his visit to 
Canada in 1901, enjoyed some excellent shooting at Poplar 
Point, Manitoba, as the gue3t of Senator Kirchoffer, bring- 
ing to bag 52 ducks during the morning flight on October 
7th. Next day he even did better, the total bag of the royal 
party being more than 600 ducks. In the same season, 
three Europeau nobleman, in the course of a fortnight's 
shooting near Lake Winnipegosis, killed five bull moose and 
a bear. 

W T hat the jungles and the big game of the east are to 
the Anglo-Indian, so the vast prairies of Manitoba and 
Northwest Canada are to the eastern sportsman. They are 
alive with feathered game. The carnivorous animals, with 
the exception of the timber and prairie wolf, have hidden in 
the shelter of the unpeopled regions, but the aquatic birds 
still remain by tens of thousands in their ancient haunts, 
and the prairie chicken and grouse feed a3 contentedly 
among the wheat and barley of the farmers as did their an- 
cestors on the wild berries of ceuturies ago, while the wild 
geese alight in white flocks withiu sight of human habitations 
as fearlessly as they did when the camp fire of the hunter 



Carrying out the spoil. 



m 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 29 



alone sent its blue smoke to the sky. To those who hunt 
them there are few sights or sounds that can thrill the heart 
more than a waving blue line across the sky and the faint 
" honk, honk," of the geese borne on the still morning air^ 
the flutter of their white plumage as they search for gravel 
among the swamps, or the "whirr" of the prairie chickens 
as they soar away in the graceful manner peculiar to them. 

It is doubtful whether any part of Manitoba offers more- 
inducements to the sportsman than the country generally 
known as Dauphin. It is a veritable paradise for the gunner. 
Prairie chicken are always plentiful on the Dauphin plains^ 
and big game, such as elk, moose, bear and deer abound in 
the forests of the Riding and Duok mountains. The waters 
an I shores of Lake Dauphin and Winnipegosis afford a splen- 
did summer resort or home and feeding ground for all kiuds 
of waterfowl. Not only can duck be seen there in thousands 
and also large flecks of geese, but the trumpet-like call of 
that king of waterfowl, the white swan, may always be 
heard on these lakes, during the shooting season. The east 
aide of Lake vVinnipegosis is als:> a natural home for game 
of all kinds, where the moose, deer, bear and caribou roam 
the sylvan solitudes undisturbed by the hunter. The 
Dauphin district is reached via railway from Portage la 
Prairie to Lako Winnipegosis, and a branch runs to the 
northwest from Sifton into the Swan River valley where 
there is also good sport. 

Big g*me is plentiful to the north of Qu'Appelle, while 
deer, antelope and wild fowl frequent the Dirt Hills about 
twenty miles south of Regina, duck, chicken and plover 
being fairly plentiful in the immediate vicinity of the town. 

The best of goose shooting is to be found on the south 
side of Buffalo Lake, about twenty miles north of Moose 
Jaw, while duck and prairie chicken abound at Lumsden, 
Duck Lake and Prince Albert. 

The antelope country is farther west, the best outfitting 
points for a trip after these beautiful animals, being Swift 
Current, Maple Creek and Medicine Hat. 

Superb bird shooting is to be had in the immediate 
neighborhood of Calgary, while the Red Deer river region to 



30 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



the north is easily reached from that city which is one of 
the best centres for big game in the Northwest. 

In Southern Alberta, reached by rail from Calgary or 
from near Medicine Hat, a wonderful variety of game is to 
be found, while Edmonton, on the other hand, opens the 
door to a wild, half known country to the north — a huge 
territory most abundantly stocked with game. 

Along the banks of the North Saskatchewan river is one 
of the best hunting grounds in America. This whole country 
is an immense park and the natural home of all varieties of 
feathered game. Prairie chickens, ducks, geese and ruffled 
grouse abound in season. Rabbits are so numerous as hardly 
to be considered game. Black-tail deer, moose and wapiti 
or elk are also plentiful, while bears, foxes, wolves, beaver, 
lynxes, mink, otters, marten, fisher, muskrats and other fur- 
bearing animals afford further opportunities for the hunter 
and trapper. 

The prairie fowl of the Northwest is found as far west 
as the valleys of the Cascade region of British Columbia, 
while occasionally that rare game bird, the large sage hen or 
4i cock of the plains" is found in the foothills. 

A correspondent writing from Yorkton, N. W. T., in 
March, 1904, mentions the following facts in connection 
with the present condition of northwestern game : "Though 
the forward march of civilization or rather colonization, is 
steadily and surely pushing the native game further back to- 
wards the north, yet I thiuk the number of uative wild ani- 
mals is not suffering any perceptible diminution. Right here in 
this district, where both in town and country we enjoy nearly 
all the conveniences of modern life, we are only thirty to 
forty miles from the haunts of deer, elk and moose. The 
black and cinnamon bear are also quite common in the 
Beaver Hills, and the valleys of the Assiniboine river and 
Stony Creek. A year or two ago, a ranchman of my 
acquaintance, while hunting cattle, discovered a large 
cinnamon bear, and succeeded in roping and dragging it 
until life was extinct. Another member of our hunting 
party, while stalking deer in the Stony Lake district last 
fall, shot and killed a fine specimen of the cinnamon bear, 



I 



Fisn and Game Attractions of Canada. 31 



weighing over 400 pounds. Last summer, two large moose 
were discovered quietly feeding in an outfield in one of the 
best settle I neighborhoods of this district. A farmer whose 
team had strayed away, took them for his horses and 
approached quite close to the animals before he discovered 
his mistake. I can say authoritatively that deer, especially 
the black-tailed jumping deer and the moose, show no signs 
of extinction. Elk seem to be more wary, and seldom ven- 
ture from the hilly and bluffy country. The Eliding and 
the Duck mountains are a favorite haunt of these animals, 
as, in fact, is all the rough, northern country extending 
across the great plains. During the construction of the 
Canadian Northern R. R. in the Komsack division last 
season, it was reported that elk were numerous enough to 
form beaten paths along the newly made grade. Beyond 
this central zone of forest aud open plain, out on the great 
barren lands of the extreme north, the musk ox roams his 
accustomed haunts, quite undisturbed by the tide of modern 
progress.'' 

It is a well-known fact that the lakes of the Peace 
River district are all the resort of countless thousands of 
geese and ducks during their migrations, very large numbers 
of them being killed and preserved for winter use every 
autumn at the Hudson Kay post, Fort Chippewayan. 

Moose extend as far west as the Gold Range of British 
Columbia, an I northwestward to Alaska and the mouth of 
the Mackenzie River. The woodland caribou is occasionally 
met with in northwestern Manitoba, and quite common in 
the more thickly wooded parts of the Northwest Territories. 
The mule deer is to be found upon the plains of the 
Saskatchewan. 

While the American bison is practically extinct in 
Canada, a few are still in existence in the basin of the 
Mackenzie River, and these which never migrate to the 
south, have oome to be known as wood buffalo. They are 
protected till 1906. 

On the barren grounds of the northwest, and in the 
Peace River district the cinnamon bear is to be met. It 




32 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



is very similar to the black bear in habits and size, but 
much more rare. 

The elk or wapiti is still occasionally to be found in 
Southern Manitoba and the Peace River country. 

The musk ox is only found in the far north of the 
Dominion, chiefly upon the barren lands between the west 
shore of the northern part of Hudson Bay and the eastern 
boundary of Alaska, and stretching away to the Arctic 
ocean. It is never found further south than latitude 59. 
It is the size of a small ox, and despite its short legs is very 
fleet of foot. Few white hunters venture far enough to the 
north to try a shot at this much prized game, of which the 
skin forms so handsome a robe. 

The polar bear belongs rather to the far northeast than 
to the northwest of Canada, and is encountered as far 
south as Hudson Straits and Bay, and the coast of northern 
Labrador. It is often found on ice floes hundreds of miles 
from land, and sometimes swimming in the water where no 
ice is in sight. It is usually in one of these positions that 
it is killed. An express bullet fails to cause death unless it 
traverses the brain. Specimens of this bear have been 
known to exceed thirteen feet in length, but their average 
length is seven to eight feet from the tip of the nose to the 
end of the tail. 

When buffalo were plentiful, the grizzly bear was an 
inhabitant of the plains along the Saskatchewan. It is 
now, however, confined to the mountains, through which it 
roams northward as far as the Yukon. 

Hunting in British Columbia. 

The grandest and most exciting hunting upon the 
American continent is to be had in British Columbia. This 
is not only due to the bulk and beauty of some of the great 
game inhabiting the Rocky Mountains, and the fierceness of 
others, but also to the nature of the mountain climbing and 
other excitement incident to this western chase. Amongst 
the game which may reasonably be expected to be encounter- 
ed in the province by the Pacific may be mentioned elk, 
jmoose, deer, caribou, Rocky Mountain sheep and goat, 



1 




Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 33 



panther, grizzly and black bear, lynx, wolf, etc., while 
waterfowl abound upon many of the mountain lakes and 
several varieties of grouse are in the forests. The construc- 
tion of the Canadian Pacific railway through the Rockies 
has naturally driven back the game some little distance 
from the track, but there are numerous places along the line 
whence the resorts of big game may easily be reached with 
the help of local guides, aud the railway officials are always 
ready to give all possible information to sportsmen. 

Many sportsmen consider the elk or wapiti to be the 
handsomest of western game, and certainly its immense 
branching antlers and clean-cut- head make it a fitting 
adornment for the grandest of palaces. is still plentiful 
among the foothills of the Rockies and in other parts of the 
province including the island of Vancouver. 

The British Columbia caribou is also a royal quarry, 
being a finer beast than that found in Eastern Canada, and 
much more like that of Newfoundland. This noble animal 
very plentiful about Eagle Pass in the Selkirk Range, 
near the Shuswap Lakes and in the Okanagan country. 

At Banff, which is the first important stopping place for 
sportsmen on the way west, good duck shooting niay be en- 
joyed upon the Vermillion lakes only a short distance from 
the hotel, or guides may be secured together with outfits, 
for extended trips into the mountains after bear, sheep, 
mountain goat, etc., to either the north, south or west. 

From Field Station farther west, a trail has been cut 
into the romantic mountain valley of the Upper Wapta, 
where some of the best wild goat aud bighorn shooting of 
the Rockies is to be had. 

A steamer makes regular trips from Golden, farther 
still to the west, up the Columbia river to the lakes at its 
head, a hundred miles away and surrounded by a fine game 
district in which are many sheep, goat, caribou and bear. 

The American Bighorn or Rocky Mountain sheep is con- 
fined entirely to the mountain ranges where it dwells securely 
among the high cliffs, leaping unscathed from crag to crag. 

is so exceedingly wary and difficult of approach that it 
has to be stalked with even more precaution than any of the 



31 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



deer tribe. Its northward range extends to the Arctic oircle. 
The horns and head not infrequently weigh over fifty pounds, 
the horns of the male being so large at the base that they 
cover all the upper portion of the head down nearly to a 
level witli the eyes, and the skull is exceedingly strong^ 
The bighorn was formerly an inhabitant of the open country 
living on the upper plains and higher plateaus and only re- 
treating to the rocks and mountains when alarmed. Fifty 
years ago it was the gentlest and least suspicious of all the 
western animals with the single exception of the buffalo, but 
its habits have completely changed and it confines itself for 
the most part, to the high mountain peaks and has become 
one of the shyest of our game animals. The mule deer and 
elk, on the other hand, even when exposed to the same con- 
ditions of danger, appear to lack the degree of intelligence 
of the mountain sheep, and have failed to become as shy or 
to be so easily alarmed. 

The Mountain goat is common from the Rocky Moun- 
tains westward to the Cascade range and as far north as the 
Arctic circle. As winder sets in it descends from above the 
tree line of the mountains to the lower grounds. It must be 
stalked with great caution, its habits being very similar to 
those of the Swiss chamois. 

Kamloops, which is an incorporated city and a divisional 
point on the main line of the railway, is the centre of a 
number of good huuting districts, including the north and 
south branches of the Thompson River, Shuswap, Grand 
Prairie, Nicola Valley, Savona, and the shores of the main 
Thompson river. This is mainly a rolling, bunch-grass 
country, through which are found many lakes and ponds, 
most of which are fringed with a heavy growth of rushes 
and tuiles, thus affording excellent feeding and breeding 
grounds for ail species of water fowl. Each spring and 
fall, great flocks of geese halt here in their migrations, and 
pass days and weeks in these waters. There are no foxes in 
this region, but there are many coyotes, and these small 
wolves afford excellent sport. 

The big Shuswap Lake is' the centre of a very fine 
sporting region. North of the lake., hunters may, after a 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 35 



day's travel, pitch their camp in a fine caribou and deer 
range, and southward of the lake the deer shooting is 
equally good. Bears are quite numerous in the mountains 
north of the lake, and a good many Indian hunters have 
been mauled by them. 

The Douglas Lake section affords good duck and geese 
shooting, but big game hereabouts keep further south in the 
more wooded districts, though the grizzly bear frequently 
makes raids upon the settlers' cattle. 

The killing of a grizzly is an achievement of which 
the most daring hunter may well-feel proud. This bear is 
not now to be found east of the Rockies, and even in that 
range there is sometimes considerable difficulty in procuring 
a trophy. The grizzly is the most ferocious and dangerous of 
his tribe, and sometimes, when pursued, especially if attacked 
at close quarters, or badly wounded will put up a most de- 
termined fight. It cannot climb trees like other bears, but is 
possessed of amazing strength and activity, and when full 
grown attains a weight of from 700 to 800 pounds. Presi- 
dent Roosevelt was once closely charged by one of these 
savage beasts, and narrowly escaped its vengeance at close 
quarters. His experience is, however, that except in rare 
cases the grizzly will not attack of its own accord, and that 
as a rule, even when wounded, its object is escape rather 
than battle. Still when fairly brought to bay, or when 
moved by a sudden fit of ungovernable anger, the grizzly is 
beyond peradventure, a very dangerous antagonist, and it is 
always hazardous to track a wounded and worried animal 
into thick cover. The grizzly constantly changes its quarters 
in order to take advantage of seasonable food. In early 
spring it may be found high upon the mountain side, digging 
at the roots of the skunk cabbage. Later on it will be seen 
feeding on the putrid salmon which line the river banks. In 
the fruit season it feeds upon wild berries. Its skin is not 
worth much after the end of May. It is sometimes hunted 
with dogs, which hold it at bay until the hunter's arrival. 
Others set a bait of deer flesh and keep watch near by until 
the expected quarry makes its appearance. 



36 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 

The black bear reaches the summit of its prosperity in 
British Columbia. In the dense forests clothing the flanks 
of the Coast Range this species is exceedingly abundant, 
and it is there that its weight is the greatest and its pelt the 
most glossy and luxuriant. Mr. Bramble, writing in the 
Canadian Magazine, says: "I think a man who stuck 
closely to business might bag a dozen bears every autumn in 
the Coast range. VYhen the dog-salmon are ruuning, and 
the streams and their tributaries choked with fish, while 
the shores odoriferous through wind rows of decaying 
salmon, the bears live by the waterside and gorge them- 
selves with the putrid remains, I have had six chances in 
one afternoon, bagging two and wounding another. The 
best way is to ascend the stream by canoe as far as desirable* 
and then to drift slowly down with a good Siwash in the 
stern, the sportsman making himself comfortable in the bow 
with his rifle ready for a snapshot." 

Vancouver Island, to which reference has already been* 
made, is famous as a resort for sportsmen. The elk or 
wapiti is not its only big game. Black-tail deer is exceed- 
ingly numerous, so much so in fact that until recent years it 
was slaughtered by thousands simply for its hide. Th 
panther or mountain lion, also found in the Rockies, is an 
inhabitant of the island, as well as the Virginia deer and 
the prairie fox. 

Angling With Rod and Line. 

From the eastern limits of Nova Scotia and Labrador to- 
wkere the waves of the Pacific wash the far westerly coast 
line of British Columbia, the waters of British North 
America swarm with enormous shoals of the most valuable 
fishes known to commerce. Many of these waters produce 
the noblest of the finny warriors sought by sportsmen, and 
the choicest angling known on the American continent, or 
for the matter of that, the finest to be had anywhere, is 
undoubtedly to be found in Canadian waters. Nowhere else 
are such superb game fish to be caught as the salmon, the 
ouananiche, the speckled brook trout, the sea trout, the 
maskinonge and the black bass of the Dominion of Canada. 




Fisherman's paradise. 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 37 



At the very head of the angler's list of fresh water game 
fishes stand those species of the Salmonidse which thrive the 
best in cool, clear, crystal waters, such as are nowhere on 
the American continent cooler, clearer or more crystalline 
than in northern Canada. 

Sportsmen from the old land have traversed much of 
the wild north land of Quebec iu search of sport, some having 
visited Great Lake Mistassini, the headwaters of the Rupert 
River flowing into James' Bay. From the enormous size of 
some of the rivers and lakes of the Labrador peninsula, and 
from the number and weight of the fish which they contain, 
it is certain that much of the interior of the country is a 
network of waterways stocked with the gamest of the game 
fishes of the north. Mr. Low, of the Geological Survey of 
Canada, has testified to the enormous quantity and size of 
the speckled trout and other game fish which he found in 
the Hamilton river, above the Great Falls. Mistassini is the 
only large inland lake in the far north of Quebec that had 
been surveyed up to ten years ago. Mr. Low tells us that it 
is over a hundred miles in length. In the far east, where the 
maps at that time showed only dotted lines, signifying the 
existence of an unknown lake, Mr. Low, in 1894, found an 
inland body of water larger than Grand Lake Mistassini. 
Michikamaw, as the great lake is" called by the Indians, is 
fifty miles away from the dotted lines that represent it on 
the maps, and while it is at least a hundred miles long, it is 
much wider than Mistassini. 

There are numbers of other large lakes in the northeast 
territorities besides Mistassini and Michikamaw, including 
several that are larger than Lake St. John. There are other 
large rivers running from the interior of this vast peninsula 
to the north besides the Koksoak, and to the east in addition 
to the Hamilton. But scarcely anything is known of them. 
The numerous streams that drain the Labrador peninsula to- 
wards the south into the river and Gulf of St. Lawrence are 
worthy of a volume to themselves. Most of them are fairly 
well known to salmon fishermen, in portions, at least, of 
their courses ; and as few of them are now open to the pub- 
lic, they do not call for any extended notice in this book. 



58 Free and Game Attractions of Canada. 



But a description of this great peninsula would be incomplete 
without at least a mention of some of the most important of 
these far-famed salmon rivers. 

The most easterly stream of this coast about which any 
white man professes to know anything practical is the Nat- 
ashquan. 

At the mouth of the Little Esquimaux, which is a far 
eastern river, ic is claimed that 50,000 salmon have been 
taken in net in a single year. The angling in the Moisie 
River is valued at many thousand dollars a year, and is the 
property of the government of Quebec. West of the Esqui- 
maux, and between it and the Natashquan, are the follow 
ing streams : The St. Augustine, the Ltttle Meccatiaa, and 
the Netaginau, all reported by the Indians to be good 
salmon rivers, though there are falls a few miles from the 
mouth of the latter, which it is probable the salmon cannot 
leap ; the Kstamamiou, the Coacoachoo, which flows into the 
bay where salmon are taken in large quantities ; the Olomo- 
nasheebo, the Washecootai, the Great and Little Musquarro, 
and the Kegashka. This last and the Olotnonasheebo, have 
cataracts a few miles from their mouths, and above them 
contain, of course, no salmon. On the Washecootai and the 
Great and Little Musquarro the fishing is reported excellent. 
West of the Natashquan, and situated between it and the 
Saguenay, and in the order hereinafter mentioned as we. go 
westward are the following rivers : The Goynish, the 
Wabisipi, the Great and Little \Vatsheeshoo, the Corneille, 
Romaine, Mingan, St. John, Magie, Thunder, Sheldrake, 
Manitou, Moisie, Margarite, Trinity, Laval, and the Little 
Bergeron nes. 

Some of the large northern tributaries of Lake St. 
John — such, for instance, as the Peribonca, the Mistassini„ 
and the Ashuapmouchouan — are from three hundred to five 
hundred miles each in length. Marvellous stories are told by 
the Indians of the trout that are taken in the headwaters, 
not only of these famous ouananiclie streams, but of the- 
salmon rivers of Labrador already mentioned, of the Ottawa 
and St. Maurice and their tributaries, as well as= in the other 
rivers and lakes of the interior at these higk latitudes, and 



Speckled beauties. 



! 



! 

1 



Fish and Gaue Attractions of Canada. 



39 



oh the further side of the height of land. Should the time 
therefore, ever come that the immense lake and river terri- 
tory of northern Quebec become overfished — a contingency 
which does not at present appear to be within the range of 
possibilities — there will certainly be angling further north 
in this Labrador peninsula for all the sportsmen of the con- 
tinent for many generations of men. 

Fishing in Prince Edward Island. 

All visitors to Prince Edward Island in the fishing season 
should take a trout rod along with them, for the rivers, 
though small are nearly all well stocked with speckled 
beauties, even those within a short distance of Charlottetown, 
the capital ; while just off the mouth of its harbor excellent 
sea-trout fishing is to be had. Other good trouting localities 
are in the vicinity of Rustico Beach — the famous summer re- 
sort — and at Tracadie, fourteen miles from Charlottetown. At 
Summerside, the angler is within an hour's drive of the 
famous Dunk River, where good trout abound, while not much 
farther off in another direction, he may try his luck in the Big 
and Little Pierre Jacques, Percival and Enmore rivers. The 
largest and best fishing stream in the island is the MoreD, 
east of Charlottetown. At the extremity of the railway route 
in the north of the island, fish can be had in the creeks and 
streams around Tignish, and within a radius ol half a dozen 
miles from Alberton are several good fishing places, among 
which, Kildare may be mentioned. Heavy sea-trout are fre- 
quently taken at Bay Fortune and a favorite place for brook 
trout is North Lake, twelve miles from Souris, near the east 
horn of the island. 

At Miminigash the sportsman can easily induce the fish- 
ermen to take him out with them in their smart little 
schooners after cod and mackerol. 

Angling in Nova Scotia. 

In almost every part of the Nova Scotia Peninsula there 
are innumerable localities where fishing may be had. 

Grand Lake, reached from Enfield station or Elmsdale^ 



40 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



on the Intercolonial Railway, contains land-locked salmon, 
trout, grayling, bass and perch. Guides and boats $2 per 
day. The fishing is good in spring for trout and graylings, 
and in the fall for black bass. This lake is twenty-one miles 
from Halifax and affords good sport. The lake is nine miles 
in length. 

Fishiug lakes, thirty-five miles from Halifax, on the 
Windsor and Annapolis Road, are good for sea and lake trout. 
In the neighborhood, are Musquodoboit River, Jeddore River, 
Indian River and Pockwood Lake, all of which furnish, trout 

fishing. 

Margaree and Dennis Rivers. — These are reached from 
Hawkesbury or Hastings, on the Intercolonial Railway, and 
contain salmon and trout, the latter most numerous. 

Trout Brook, forty miles from Hawkesbury, is one of the 
best trout sti earns in Nova Scotia. 

Indian River is twenty-one miles from Halifax, on the 
Intercolonial Railway. It is a magnificent stream for sea 
trout and also contains salmon. 

Nictaux River contains large trout in abundance. It is 
reached from Middleton. on the Windsor and Annapolis 
Railway. 

Mulgrave Lakes. — These are situated near Mulgrave, on 
the Intercolonial Railway, and contain trout in abundance, 
which are caught freely from May 20th to September 20th. 

Hutchinson Lake, reached from Newport, on the Windsor 
and Annapolis Railway, offers very fine trouting, the fish 
being a good size. 

Round about Windsor. — There are numerous lakes to be 
reached from Windsor, all of which afford good fishing. 

Charles Hallock, who knows his Nova Scotia from one 
extremity to the other, divides the country for sj5orting pur- 
poses into three separate districts as follows : — First. — The 
Parrsboro or Cobequid district, which includes the counties of 
Cumberland and Colchester. The rivers of this district head 
in the Cobequid Mountains and flow north and east into the 
Northumberland Strait of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and south 
and west into the Basin of Minas, which is an arm of the Bay 
of Fundy. They are extremely clear and cold, and generally 




Whipping for trout. 



41 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



find their sources in lakes into which the salmon go to spawn» 
On the bay side they include the Macan, Herbert, Apple ^ 
Stewiacke, Great Bass, Portapique and Folly rivers. Apple 
River and the Portapique are the best of the number, but the 
former rims through a dense wilderness its whole length, and 
is accessible only from the sea. Most of the others can be 
reached from Truro or Parrsboro by a wagon road, which fol- 
lows the shore of Minas Basin. The St. John steamer touches 
at Parrsboro en route to Windsor. By this route several 
streams can be fished successively, and lodgings can be ob- 
tained at intervals at farm-houses along the road. The true 
way, however, of enjoying a visit to this section is to hire a 
boat at Truro or Amherst and go round the peninsula, the 
voyage occupying some four or five weeks. On the gulf side 
the two best streams are the Wallace River and the River 
Philippe. The latter is a noble stream, and has been well 
protected from illegal fishing for a number of years, and pro- 
vided with passes over the dams. Its trout have always been 
noted for their large size. It is most easily reached by the 
Intercolonial railway from Truro to Amherst. At the famous 
Westchester Lakes the angler can catch trout by the bushel, 
often of a large size, though the average weight is not perhaps 
half a pound. The second district to which the angler's atten- 
tion is invited, I designate the middle district, for lack of & 
better term. It includes nearly all of Halifax county, and 
part of the counties of Guysboro and Pictou. Too much can- 
not be said in praise of this entire district. Its general 
features are mountainous and similar to those of the other two 
districts specially spoken of. There are innumerable streams 
into which salmon have been running the past few years, over 
unobstructed passes and artificial fishways, in numbers that 
cause both rod and net fishermen to leap for joy. So many 
have not been seen for decades ; and the quantity netted in 
the estuaries demonstrates that the system of protecting fish 
on their breeding-beds is telling in favor of the coast fishing.. 
John, Middle and East Rivers in Pictou county are accessible 
from Pictou, the railway terminus ; the east and west branches 
of St. Mary's Kiver, as well as the 'main stream, running 
through Guysboro into Pictou, afford fine salmon fishing ; and 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 42 



the North, Middle and Tangier rivers in Halifax county are 
also good, though hitherto inter f erred with by lumbering 
operations. 

The Shelburne district embraces nearly the whole of 
Shelburne, Queens, and Lunenburg counties, the same being 
the southern half of a wilderness tract some sixty miles by 
ninety in extent. It is emphatically the lake region of Nova 
Scotia. All that it lacks is the grand old mountains to make 
it physically as attractive as the Axlirondacks, while as for 
game and fish it is in every way infinitely superior. Its rivers 
are short, but they flow with full volume to the ^ea, and yield 
abundantly of salmon, trout and sea-trout. Its lakes swarm 
with trout, and into many of them the salmon ascend to 
swamp, and are dipped and speared by the Indians in large 
numbers. 

Fishing in New Brunswick. 

Excellent fishing may be had in portions of New Brun s- 
wick, and it is not necessary to go far from civilization for it 
either. In fact the angler in that Province need never be 
very far distant from mail and telegraphic communication. 

The Upsalquitch, a large tributary of the Restigouche, is 
leased in part by the government of New Brunswick, by the 
-season. It abounds with salmon for ten or more miles, and 
there is good trout fishingj higher up, and also in the lakes on 
the southeast branch, where the charge for fishing is $1 per 
day. They are reached by team from Campbellton station. 
The Upsalquitch salmon pools are reached from the Upsal- 
quitch station. 

The Jacquet River ranks high as a salmon stream. It is 
under lease to Thomas Murphy, of Dalhousie, who charges 
$30 a week for it. The pools are reached from Jacquet 
Station, from which they are distant five or six miles. 

Christopher Brook, the Pokemondro, etc. — In these and 
other adjacent streams, from the end of May to 20th June 
sea trout may be taken in abundance at head of tidal water, 
which in Christopher Brook is only six miles above Camp- 
bellton, on the Intercolonial Railway. All summer they are 
•caught in pools further up the stream. 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 43 



The Nepisguit, aftar the Restigouche and Miramiclii, is 
one of the beat salmon rivers in New Brnnswick. Salmon 
fishing begins in it about the 10th June and lasts until the 
I5th August. The Nepisiguit is under lease from Govern- 
ment, and also partly owned by private parties and clubs. 
Some of the latter let the fishing by day permits, or for the 
whole or portion of the season, to visiting sportsmen. For 
particulars address Mr. Henry Bishop, of Bathurst, where 
the angler for the river leaves the train. There are suitable 
lodges or camps on the fishing grounds, which are very com- 
fortable, and well supplied with cooking utensils, etc 

The Caraquet River, which is reached by the Caraquet 
Railway, is a good trout stream which has been reserved by 
the Government for the public. 

Tracadie River. — Mr. D. G. Smith, Fishery Commissioner 
for New Brunswick, writes: "Tracadie River is, I believe^ 
from my experience on it, the best sea trout stream in Canada — 
not even excepting the Tabusintac — which is next south of ifr. 
It is reached by way of Bathurst or Chatham, as the visitor 
may desire, although, as the Government lessee, Hon J B. 
Snowball, resides in Chatham, that route seemed preferable. 
To go by way of Bathurst involves about 150 miles of railway 
travel beyond Chatham. If the party comes by way of St. 
John or Fredericton, from Chatham to Tracadie is about fifty 
miles by stage line or special team ; or half the distance may be 
made by the Miramichi Steam Navagation Company's boat, 
and the remainder by team. Mr. Snowball's steamers, how- 
ever, run about twice a week between the mouth of the- 
Chatham and Tracadie." 

The Northwest Miramichi, which is prolific in salmon 
and trout, and has a fine system of lakes and tributary 
streams, is one of the best angling resorts in Canada. It is 
all under lease or owned by riparians, but some of the holders 
let fishing privileges to suitable parties. The well-known 
Camp Adams and Camp Crawford are in the main northwest. 
Hon. Mr. Adams, Newcastle, owns the first named property,, 
which consists of four miles of the best fishing on the river 
Camp Crawford is about ten miles above the Adams property. 



44 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



The fishery commissioner already quoted says : " Mr. R. H. 
Armstrong, Newcastle, special game warden, looks after Camp 
Crawford, and is a fine sportsman who will give intending 
visitors all necessary information. Lt.-Col. R. R. Call, New- 
castle, is the Government lessee of the north wast Miramichi 
and its tributaries above the Sevogle. He is American Con- 
sular Agent at Miramichi and has some fine salmon pools on 
his leasehold. With his well-known hospitality, he allows 
visitors whom he thinks entitled to the courtesy, free fishing 
on this river, under proper restrictions, of course. The Big 
Sevogle, is under lease to Mr. David R. C. Brown, of Aspen> 
Colorado." 

South-west Miramichi. — The south-west branch of the 
Miramichi is reached from Bristol station, on the Woodstock 
branch of the C. P. R., by a drive of fifteen miles. Trout in 
the lakes cf this stream are abundant and large. 

Cain's River. — V famous sea-trout resort is Cain's River, 
branch of the S. W. Miramichi. It has about fifty miles of 
fishing and is a favorite place for visiting anglers coming to 
the province from the United States by way of Fredericton. 
It is reached from Doaktown, Boiestown or Zionville, stations 
of the Canada Eastern railway, according to the season and in 
the order named. 

The Tabusintac is a favorite trout-fishing resort which 
Mr. John Connell, the lessee, who is a guide and hotel pro- 
prietor at Bartibog, sub-lets for $35 a week to a party or $2.50 
a day per rod. It is reached by driving from Chatham or 
Newcastle through Bartibog. 

Loch Lomond is the name given to a system of three 
lakes nine miles from St. John, where there is good angling 
and three hotels. Numbers of small lakes and trout streams 
may be visited at a reasonable distance from the city. 

Bay of Fundy. — Fish Commissioner Smith says : " One 
of the most novel fishing sports of the province is pollock ang- 
ling, which is a popular pastime, especially in the vicinity 
of the Quaco lodge, about thirty-five miles up the Bay of 
Fundy from St. John. The fish run up to ten pounds weight 
and readily rise to the "fly," which may be made of almost 



Fishing through the ice. 



i 



iJrsH and Game Attractions of Canada. 45 



any kind of light colored feathers, or even worsted or old 
flannel tied to a common bait hook. No gut leaders or casting 
lines are required, and bass lines or even wottle poles are 
good enough to fish with. Salmon fishermen who have 
indulged in this sport with the same tackle they used in the 
Restigouche and at Jurnt Hill pools on the Miramichi, declare 
it the next best thing to angling in these waters, for the 
pollock is a very smart gamy fish, although he does n ->t rush 
as the salmon does. His jumps and tumbles are like those of 
the grilse." 

Passamaquoddy Bay also affords unlimited scope for salt 
water fishing. 

Clarence and Bonny Rivers and Lake Utopia. — St. George 
and Bonny River stations on the Shore Line railway, are the 
great centres of sport. In the M.igaguadavic and Bonny River 
and Clarence streams there are plenty of brook trout. Utopia, 
Digdeguash, Mill, Trout, Crazy, Long, Red Rock, Sparks' and 
Forked Lakes are all excellent for trout, while land-locked 
salmon are taken in Lake Utopia. All, except Digdeguash, 
•can be reached by water from St. George or Bonny River 
-station. 

Round about St. Andrews — For the.trout and land-locked 
salmon fisherman, there are are a number of lakes and 
streams at an easy driving distance from St- Andrews. Among 
them are Chamcook, Limeburner, Bartlett, Stein's, Snovvshoe, 
Welsh, Cram, Turner, McOullough and Creasy Lakes, as well 
as several streams. Once in St. Andrews, which is reached 
by both rail and steamboat, the visitor will find no lack of 
places in which to seek for and find fish. The St. Croix at St. 
Stephen yields the first salmon taken with the fly in New 
Brunswick every year. Between the boundary and St. John, 
along the line of railway, are a number of lakes and streams 
of note, including Harvey, South Oromocto, Long an 1 Victoria 
Lakes. These are chiefly for trout, but if the visitor seeks 
salmon there is but the need of a little longer journey to reach 
the tributaries of the River St. John. There are however, both 
trout and land-locked salmon in Skiff Lake, only three miles 
from Canterbury Station. ' 



46 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



The Tobique is a great river for both salmon and trout. 
The main stream is more than sixty miles long to what are- 
called the Forks, and these latter each have nearly as great a 
length. Both the main, and the smaller streams afford good 
fiy fishing for trout. The Tobique is mo3t conveniently 
reached from Perth Junction (opposite Andover, where guides 
can be secured) by the Tobique Valley braach of the C. P. 
Ry., which skirts the river up to Plaster Rock, where there is 
hotel accommodation and where conveyances can be hired to 
take sportsmen to the lakes - further in the interior. The 
forks of this river is a locality with a special reputation for 
salmon and trout. Of the branches the best salmon are in 
the Little Tobique and the finest trout in Campbell River. 
Tobique Lake is at the head of the Little Tobique, and has a 
fame for the size and abundance of the trout in its waters. 
From here, should one wish, a portage might be made to 
Nipisiguit Lake, the headwaters of the stream of that name 
which enters into the Bay des Chaleurs. The Gulf shore of 
New Brunswick with its streams, may be reached by rail 
across the country from Fredericton. The Tobique is under 
lease to the Tobique Salmon Club. 

The Upper St. John. — In the heart of a district famed for 
its fishing is situated at Edmunston, a station of the C. P. R. 
and a point that is quite easily reached from Quebec via 
Riviere-du-fcoup by Temiscouata Railway. There are many 
waters from which to make a choice, and all of them are 
good, for there is good fishing everywhere in the Upper St. 
John and all tributary and adjacent waters. From here, too, 
may be reached the headwaters of the Restigouche and its 
tributaries, and a number ef streams that flow into the River 
St. Lawrence, many of them prominent salmon rivers. 

Closely connected, also, with this country by the Tamis- 
conata Railway, are some of the finest fishing waters in 
eastern Quebec. 

The Province of Quebec. 

Lake Temiscouata and the surrounding waters, as well 
as the many rivers and lakes of the-Squattecks, afford some of 
Ihe grandest fishing to be had in North America. Most ef 



Fish asd Game Attractions of Canada. 47 



the angling resorts in this district are reached via the Temis- 
couata Railway, which may be taken at River du Loup, on the 
Intercolonial Railway, 115 miles from Quebec. 

Lake Temiscouata is a beautiful sheet of water, twenty- 
eight miles long and in some places two miles wide. It is 
also very deep soundings showing 100 feet and over along the 
eastern shore. Excellent trout fishing may be obtained in the 
vicinity of Lake Temiscouata from June to September, averag- 
ing thirty to forty pounds per boat daily. These brook trout 
are often taken here up to seven pounds, while in the Lake 
Temiscouata itself the namaycush or lake trout run upwards 
of thirty pounds. Two hours' run from River du Loup, a dis- 
tance of firty miles, brings the angler to a pretty village of 
Notre-Damedu Lac, situated on a hi!l whose base is washed by 
the waters of Lake Temiscouata. Good hotels are kept here 
by Mr. Cloutier and Madame Bartes. Here guides and canoes 
can be had. 

Touladi River. — This river is reached after about six 
miles' paddling from Notre Dame du Lac. It is one of the 
principal feeders of the great lake and the rendezvous of all 
the fishermen in the months of May, June and July. The 
fly-fishing here is usually excellent, and speckled trout a*e 
large. 

There is excellent sport for the angler in a number of 
lakes in the vicinity of the city of Quebec, such as Lake Beau- 
port, Lake St. Charles and Lake St. Joseph. The city is also 
within easy distance of the magnificent trout waters of the 
Laurentides National Park and also of the country traversed by 
the Quebec and Lake St. John Railway. 

The Jacques-Cartier is a noted trout stream, the best fish- 
ing in which is to be had, however, in that part of the river 
included within the limits of the Laurentides National Park. 
The Great Lake Jacques-Cartier from which the river flows, 
is nine miles long and one to three broad. It is exceedingly 
picturesque, being almost completely hemmed in by very 
lofty mountains. Immediately below it is the little lake 
Jacques-Cartier, measuring two miles across. Trout have 
actually been taken upon the fly in the outlet of Lake Jaeqaes- 



48 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



Cartier eceeding nine pounds in weight, and still larger ones 
are doubtless to be had there. The lake is somewhat difficult 
of access, for it is situated a hundred miles from the mouth of 
the river, following the stream, aud three-quarters of the road 
leading to it from the city of Quebec is iti a very rough con- 
dition, particularly that part between Stoneham and the great 
lake, a good portion of which is built across the mountains. 
•Government game-keepers guard the entrance to the Park by 
this road against those who are not provided with licenses, 
which cost $1 per day. 

The revolution which has taken place in angling matters 
in northern Quebec during the last decade is directly trace- 
able to the construction of the Quebec and Luke St. John 
railway. This road has not only opened up to anglers the 
magnificent stretches of forest, lake and st'eam through 
which it runs for one hundred and ninety miles from the city 
of Quebec to Lake St. John, and again for fifty miles from the 
great lake to Chicoutimi, but has rendered accessible to 
tourists and sportsmen that wonderland of the north — that 
terra, incognita that stretches away from Lake St. John to- 
wards and beyond mysterious Idistassini. All along the line 
of railway are w iters teeming with fish, many of them rival- 
ling the best of those enclosed in the National Park. In fact 
many cf them are equally preserved by the clubs that lease 
the fishing of them, and all share in the benefit resulting from 
their proximity to the Park and the protection enforced there- 
in. Guides charge SI. 50 per day for their services aud boat, 
aad the best flies for trout are the Silver Doctor, White 
Moth, Parmachnee Belle and Brown Hackle. 

The course of the Batiscan River is followed by the rail- 
way for between 20 and 30 miles. It is generally, here, from 
one hundred to four hundred feet in width, running fre- 
quently through such narrow mountain passes as barely to 
leave room for the railway track on one of its shores. It is a 
succession for the most part of wild, leaping cascades, and 
dashing, foaming rapids, with occasional stretches of deep, 
dark water that contract strangely with the rough and rocky 
■descents that form the chief characteristics of the rirer' 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 4& 



course through this wild, mountainous country. All the lakes 
that are drained into the Batiscan contain an immense quantity 
of speckled trout. 

Lake Batiscan is a beautiful body of water nine miles 
long, famous like Lake Moise for its eight and nine pound 
trout. 

Lake Edward, one hundred and thirteen miles from Quebec, 
is the largest body of water between the St. Lawrence and 
Lake St. John. Its original and more appropriate name is 
Lac des Grandes Isles, for in its length of twenty miles are 
numerous islands, large and small, and b Q autifully wooded, 
and often rising to a considerable height out of tho water. 
In deep pools, some cf which are continually cooled by the 
upward bubbHng of freshwater springs, they love to linger in 
refreshing indolence those monster trout — handsome, red- 
bellied specimens of t^e true mlmo fontinalis — weighing 
often four to six pound each, which -have made this lake so 
famous. There is an excellent hotel at the railway station. 

The Ouiatchouan River carries down the waters of Lake 
Bouchette into Lake St. John. The fishing in the river above 
the falls is leased to a fish and game • club. Large trout are 
taken in it, and also, sometimes, in the pool at the foot of the 
falls. Just above the railway bridge that spans the mouth of 
the stream, in full v iew of the beautiful faUs a mile away, 
and 236 feet in height, the waters of the river spread 
out into a majestic pool, in which the spring-time fishing for 
ouananiche or fresh water salmon is at its very best from about 
the 20th of May to the 15th or 20th of June. "The 
Ouananiche and its Canadian Environment," published by 
Harper A; Bros., of New York, appears the following des- 
cription of the spring fishing in the mouth of the Ouiat- 
•houan : " Little fields of white scum or brou float round 
and round in this Ouiatchouan pool because of the existence 
of contrary currents. You have drawn your cast through 
one of these patches, and are, perhaps, about lifting your 
flies from the surface of the water, when a violent strike 
tells you that a prompt responsive jerk will make fast to 
your hook one of the gamest of American game- fishes. Or, 



-50 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



perhaps, he has securely hooked himself, and almost before 
you have ceased wondering at the length of line that is being 
run from off your reel, a bright, arched gleam of silver darts 
out of the water a hundred feet away from your canoe, as 
suddenly as an arrow shotf rom a bow, and deliberately turns a 
somersault three or four feet in the air. If you are a novice 
at the sport, or he has taken you unawares, you may never 
see him more. If he managed by his superior dexterity and 
cunning to get the slack of the line, he probably shook the 
hook from his mouth and is free. If, in your excitement, ' 
you gave him the butt too quickly, you perhaps tore the 
hook out of his delicate mouth. Or, matching his agility 
and strength against the endurance of your casting- line, or 
the pliability of your trusty rod, he has made shipwreck 
alike of your tackle and your happiness. Sometimes his 
leaps are made in such rapid succession that you are fighting 
your fish alternately in air and water. At others, if it be a 
large fish, he goes down and sulks like a salmon from the 
sea. His different methods of defence would appear to 
indicate that he possesses the combined finesse of the salmon 
and the bass." 

The description would also apply to the fishing for ouan- 
aniche in the grand discharge of Lake St. John where some of 
the grandest sport known to the angler is to be had. 

Splendid fishing for ouananiche, trout and many other 
varieties of fish is also to be had in the many large northern 
feeders of Lake St John. 

The St. Maurice River which flows into the St. Lawrence 
at Three Rivers, abounds in common with nearly all its tribu- 
taries and the lakes by which they are fed, in all kinds of 
coaise fish, most of the smaller streams and lakes in the terri- 
tory drained by it being stocked with the largest and gamest 
of speckled trout. Its principal tributaries are the Shawenegan, 
Matawin, Rat, Vermillion, Flamand, Ribbon and Monouan 
from the west, and Mekinak, Petite and Grande Bostonnais, 
(Voche, Tranche and Windigo from the east. From Three 
Rivers a railway (the Piles Branch of the C. P R.), with its 
several trains a day each way, runs northerly to Grand Piles. 
The St.. Maurice is navigable thence to La Tuque, seventy- five 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 51 



miles further into the interior, and there is a regular line of 
steamboats running between these points. Good guides «an 
be procured at Grand Piles for $1.25 to $1.50 and board per 
day, and canoes for 75 cents to $1.00 per day. From the 
Grand Piles as a centre there are any number of good angling 
resorts to be reached. Via this place, or by ascending the 
St. Maurice River in a steamer, the members of the famous 
Laurentian and Shawenegan Fishing Clubs reach their limits. 
They own magnificent series of lakes, where brook trout are 
often taken up to five and six pounds in weight. 

There are magnificent trout lakes north of Montreal, and 
splendid bass and maskinonge fishing both in the St. Law- 
rence above the city, and also in the Ottawa near St. Anne's. 

In the immense number of its lakes and rivers and the 
abundance of fish which they contain, the district of Ot- 
tawa iu the Province of Quebec almost equals that of the 
famous Lake St. John. The Ottawa Kiver, from its source 
at Lake Gapemechigama, ouly 32 miles south of the height of 
land between the St. Lawrence waters and those flowing into 
Hudson Bay, is 780 miles long to its mouth at the lower end 
of the island of Montreal. From Lake Exhwaham, from 
which one of its branches takes its origin, the river is over 
800 miles to its mouth. This river and its tributary waters 
drain an area of no less than 60,180 square miles, of which 
40,324, or a territory double that of Nova Scotia, is in the 
Province of Quebec. The Ottawa is almost as long as the 
Rhine, but has three times its volume of water. The entire 
country north of the Ottawa is one of lakes. In a zone 60 
miles broad and 250 miles long, stretching through the in- 
terior of the country, from Lake Temiscamingue to Lake 
Spain in Rerthier county are the following amongst other 
great bodies of water : Lake Keepawa, Grand f.ac, Lake 
Victoria and Lake Kekabonga. 

The Gatineau, one of the most important of the tributaries 
of the Ottawa, flows into it almost opposite Ottawa city. It 
is nearly 400 miles long, and the couutry drained by it is 
thickly bespangled with lakes of all kinds and sizes, contain- 
ing all sorts of fish to be found in this region, and connected 
by beautiful streams. Splendid trolling is to be had in the 



52 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



Gatineau and many of the lakes that discharge into it, and 
in others of its tributary waters there is to be had as fine fly- 
fishing as any to be found in this part of the world. Some 
of the trout and bass in these waters are of very large size, 
while specimens of their whitefish weigh as high as thirteen 
pounds. Commissioners' Lake, also called Thirty-One Mile 
Lake, on account of its size, contains enormous black bass, 
while Hallock reports that in Whitefish Lake the whitefish 
are so plentiful that for miles along the shore the water seems 
alive with them. 

The River Mattawa flows into the Ottawa from the On- 
tario side over 350 miles above Montreal. Guides can be 
obtained in Mattawa at its mouth. Prices are low for guides 
and boats or canoes. The fishing is of the best, there being 
plenty of fine lunge and bass, which take the troll readily ; 
while in any of the countless coves and bays the stickler for 
the fly rod can find scope for his ambition with bass weighing 
from one to five pounds. 

Lake Temiscamingue is a large expansion of the Upper 
Ottawa, 75 miles long, and some distance south-west of it is 
Lake Tamagaming, one of the most recently opened up 
resorts of sportsmen, and a veritable paradise for anglers. 
Its surplus waters are carried into Lake Nipissing by the 
Sturgeon River. It may be reached from Haileybury, on 
Lake Temiscamingue. It is shorter but wider than this 
latter, full of deep bays and bespangled with thousands of 
beautiful islands. The scenery is of the loveliest description 
and the fishing is described by the comparatively few white 
men who have visited it as wonderfully good. The magnifi- 
cent trip from Sturgeon Falls to Lake Temagamingue — fifty 
miles away — has been made more frequently during the past 
few years by parties of sportsmen who have all spoken of it 
as a most enjoyable expedition. Black bass and grey trout 
are abundant in the lake, and pickerel and pike cam be 
caught almost anywhere en route. 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 53 



Province of Ontario. 

From North Bay to Fort William, the Canadian Pacific 
railway crosses some of the very finest trout streams on the 
continent, including the world-renowned Nepigon river and 
lake. Many of the rivers and brooks in this section, or the 
numerous lakes, great and small, which are seen from the 
car windows, have never been fished, but such as have been 
tried have richly rewarded the experiment. Near the town 
of Sudbury some fair lake fishing is obtainable. In traversing 
the north shore of Lake Superior you will cross, among 
others, the Wahnapitaeping River, flowing from Lake Meta- 
gama into Georgian Bay ; the Onaping River, draining the 
lake of that name : Spanish River ; Mississaga, the outlet of 
Winibegon and Ground Hog Lakes ; the Apishkaugama, 
Michipicoten and the Steel Rivers, trout streams of rare 
merit. The Magpie, White and the Little Pic Rivers also 
abound in trout of good size. White River being perhaps as 
good as any of the extensive list. Steel River offers some of 
the choicest trout fishing available outside of Nepigon. It 
has several small falls and rapids and pools, and, in fact, it 
is just the stream an angler loves, and wonderful catches 
can be made either by following it upward or near its 
mouth, using either worms, minnows or artificial lures. 
Other trout-haunted tributaries of this north shore are the 
Mink, Black, Maggot, Gravel, Cypress, Prairie, Jack Pine, 
Fire Hill, Trout Creek, Wolf, McKenzieand Current Rivers, 
and there are several others within easy reach of the railway. 

Michipocoten. — To fish this river you get off at Missa- 
nabie station and cross Dog Lake in a 3team-launch, distance 
about ten miles, to Stony Portage, where the fishing starts. 
Good fishing is to be had from this point to where the river 
empties into Lake Superior, a distance of about forty miles. 
The fish are large (up to five and a half pounds) and game, 
the water rapid, and lots of room to cast a fly. The stream 
has been very lictle fished. It probably is very little 
inferior, if at all, to the Nepigon. By writing to the Hud- 
son's Bay officer at Missanabic, guides and canoes can be 
secured without any difficulty. From Missanabie the 



54 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



tourist can make the journey to James Bay — the southern 
portion of Hudson's Bay. This is accomplished by canoe. 
Good fishing and shooting can be had. The journey occupies 
from eight to ten divs from Missanabie to Moose Factory, 
the Hudson's Bay Company fort and headquarters of the 
company in this part of the country. The return, which is 
against the stream, will take fifteen to eighteen days and can 
be made either by the same route or by the Abittibi River 
to the upper Ottawa an I Lake Temiscamingue country, 
reaching the railway again at Mattawa, or may be made via 
the Ashuapmouchouan and Lake St. John. 

In the Steel River from the middle of June until the 1st 
©f August good sp >rt is to be had, though somewhat uncer- 
tain. From August 1st to September loth, the fishing 
oannot be surpassed anywhere, the fish ranging in weight 
from two to six pounds. Mr. Ham reports forty fish taken 
in a morning and evening's fishing with two rods, weighing 
dressed 123 pounds. If the fisherm in intends visiting the 
headwaters of this river he should have guides with him ; but 
capital sport can be had from the mouth ot the river to the 
basin. If this part of the river is fished no gui le will be 
require I, and just as good sport can be had as in the upper 
stretches. 

The Nepigon was for years the most famous speckled 
trout stream upon the American continent, and still rivals 
the more recently opened up waters of northerly Q tebec in 
the beautiful coloration and maguificent combative powers 
of its seven and eight pound specimens of salmi fonlinnlis. 
The praises of no trout stream have been more enthusiasti- 
cally sun^ than those of the Nepigon. Hillo3k, in his 
Fiskin'f Tourist, tells of passengers at the mouth of the 
river, while waiting for the steamer, catching trout from 1£ 
to 5 pounds each. Of 150 fish which his party caught, the 
average, by actual test, was a little above 2£ lbs. On ex- 
ceptional occasions the score ran thus : five fish, 18| lbs. ; 
five fish, 20 lbs. ; five fish, 23 lbs. ; six fish, 22£ lbs. He 
records the landing of four at one time, weighing in aggre- 
gate nearly 11 lbs. Large whitefish are also to be taken in 
tke river, which is the outlet of Lake Nepigon. The river 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 55 



is nearly thirty-five miles long and six hundred feet wide at 
its mouth. The Taylor House is a comfortable little hotel 
at Nepigon station. For fishing up stream it is necessary to 
camp out under canvas. Two Indians and a canoe cost from 
$2 to $1 per day. Small salmon flies and medium hackles 
were found desirable lures by Halloek for Nepigon river 
trout, but almost all the standard varieties are good, par- 
ticularly the Professor, Queen of the Water, gray and green 
drakes, grizzly king, Montreal, etc. Four lakes mark the 
course of this river. 

Lake Nepigon is some seventy miles long by about fifty 
wide. Its coast line is so broken with coves and bays that it 
measures nearly six hundred miles. It contains over a 
thousand islands, some mere islets, others eight miles long. 
Very large brook trout may be caught from rocks along the 
shore, almost anywhere between Port Caldwell Station and 
Mink Harbor, and also on Jack Fish Bay. Marvellously 
large specimens of the great grey lake trout, salvelinus 
iiamaycmh, are taken by trolling in the* deep water of this 
lake, and at page 269 of " The Ouananiche and its Canadian 
Environment," published by Harper & Bros., Lieut. -Col 
Haggard, D. S. (). , describes some marvellous fishing he got 
there, and how his Indian guides used their teeth to aid in 
landing some of these monsters of the deep, weighing thirty 
and thirty-two pounds respectively. In about three hours' 
"fishing he took one hundred and forty-eight pounds of lake 
trout. 

Loon and Silver Lakes. — In the territory lying between 
the hlepigon aud Fort William are a number of excellent 
waters, both for trout and bass. In two of them, Loon and 
Silver Lakes, black bass of great size are easily taken, as they 
rise freely to the fly, and the unusual sight of a speckled 
trout and a black bass hooked on the same cast has been 
witnessed at Loon Lake. This lake is the source of the 
Pearl River, and is well worth a visit, as is also Silver Lake, 
-distant from it only three miles, and equally well stocked 
with the two fish mentioned. There are a number of trout 
streams in the neighborhood of Port Arthur acd Fort 
William. 



56 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



The magnificent Lake-of-the- Woods, one of the most beauti- 
ful waters in all Canada. It is so irregular in shape, and has 
so many islands and bays, that but a portion of it can be 
seen from any one point of view. As will be readily under- 
stood, experienced guides are necessary, if an attempt is 
made to explore this maze of waters, but they can be easily 
secured. Luke-of -the- Woods, says Mr. George Ham, sprawls 
like a huge silver spider amid romantic surroundings of the 
most pleasing description ; and from it extend natural water 
highways for hundreds of miles east and west and north. 

Muskoka Lakes. — The region known as " Muskoka 
Lakes " ia a collection of lakes and islands in Northern 
Ontario, one hundred and twelve miles from Toronto and 
one hundred and forty-five miles from Hamilton, on the line 
of the Northern Division of the Grand Trunk Railway ; the 
point of destination by rail is Gravenhurst (Muskoka Wharf), 
where close connection is made with the boats of the Mus- 
koka Navigation Co., and it is but a day's journey from 
Toronto or Hamilton* to the farthest stopping place on the 
lakes. While the lakes in this enchanted region are numbered 
by the thousand, the three principle sheets of water are,. 
Muskoka, the first and largest ; Rosseau, second and next 
largest, and Joseph, t!he third, somewhat smaller than Lake 
Rosseau. From Muskoka Wharf to Port Carling, the 
junction of Lakes Muskoka and Rosseau, the distance is- 
twenty-one miles ; from the same starting point to Rosseau, 
at the head of the lake of this name, it is thirty-three miles, 
while the farthest point on the three lakes, Port Cockburn, 
at the head of Lake Joseph, is forty-five miles from the 
wharf at Gravenhurst, the width of the lakes varying 
from channels a few hundred yards across, to open stretches 
of water ab^ut six miles wide. The lakes are fed by several 
rivers and streams, chief among them being the Muskoka 
River, entering Muskoka Lake about midway between Graven- 
hurst and Beaumaris, on the eastern shore of the lake, and the 
route for the M. N. Company's steamers to Bracebridge, a 
pretty town sixteen miles north of Gravenhurst. The Dee 
River connecting Three Mile Lake with Lake Rosseau near 
Windermere, Skeleton River from Skeleton Lake to Lake Res- 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 57 



seau River with the pretty Rosseau Falls, all feed this, the 
second largest of the three lakes on its eastern boundary. 
Muskoka is noted for the number and excellence of its 
hotels and boarding-houses, of which there are in the neigh- 
borhood of 40, at various intervals along the line of the 
steamboat route. The rates range from $1.00 to $2.00 per day, 
and the accommodation is all that can be desired or expected 
for the money. Of the almost innumerable fishing grounds in 
these lakes the following are a few of the most convenient : 
Sparrow Lake — Black bass, maskinonge and pickerel. Lake 
Kahshe-she-bog-a-mog — Black bass. - Muskoka Lake — A.t 
Gravenhurst — Black bass, pickerel and salmon trout ; and at 
Hawk Rock River, speckled trout. Muskoka Falls — Bass and 
pickerel. Mouth of Muskoka River — Bass, pickerel and salmon 
trout. South Branch Muskoka River — Speckled trout. Bala — 
Bass, pickerel and salmon trout. Afoon River (below Bala) — 
Good maskinonge trolling. The Kettles —Bass and pickerel. 
Port Carling — Indian River — Bass, pickerel and salmon trout ; 
Silver Lake, Perch Lake, Pickerel Lake and Brandy Lake — 
Bass. Lakes Rosseau and Joseph — Bass, pickerel and salmon 
trout. Port Sandfield — Bass, pickerel and salmon trout. Port 
Cock burn — (head of Lake Joseph) — Bass, salmon trout and 
pickerel. Blackstone Lake — (near Port Cockburn) — Maski- 
nonge and bass. Rosseau — (head Lake Rosseau) — Bass, 
pickerel, speckled trout and salmon. Burks Falls —Bass, sal- 
mon and perch. Trolling for salmon trout begins about the 
24th May and lasts about two weeks. The Indians think the 
best time in spring is while the blossoms are on the wild plum 
trees. In the fall it begins about the middle of October and 
lasts about the same time. Bass, pickerel and maskinonge 
will take the spoon freely during the period allowed by the 
Game Laws. In the warm weather the salmon trout keep close 
to the bottom. It is then necessary to use a line 200 or 300 
feet long, with about two pounds of a sinker, so that the bait 
may reach a great depth. 

Did space permit, much might be said of the excellent 
sport to be had in the Magnefeiwan River, about halfway be- 
tween Lake Nipissing and Muskoka, in Sarbot Lake on the- 



58 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



main line of the C. P. R., in the Rideau Lakes, the River 
Trent, Stony and Rice Lakes, quite close to Peterboro, and 
the Bay of Quinte. 

The 30,000 islands of Georgian Bay. — For the devotees of 
rod and gun, the Georgian Bay District holds out unlimited 
attractions. Fish are plentiful in the bays and inlets 
throughout this vast expanse of water, and the rivers and 
streams which empty into the waterway teem with several 
varieties of the more gamy of the finny tribe, among them 
being black bass, pickerel, maskinonge, whitefish, speckled 
trout, lake trout and salmon trout. Many of the smaller 
stretches of water, including the lakes inland a few miles 
from several points on the steamer's route, are well-stocked, 
and lo the angler who wishes to rough it, capital sport is 
assured. For the hunter, during the open season, deer, bear, 
musk rat, duck, partridge, geese and pigeon are found in 
abundance, and the region throughout may be called the 
richest game land on the continent. From Slide Bay, near 
Sans Souci, the hunter or angler can reach the Muskoka 
Lakes with ease by covering sixteen lakes with several por- 
tages, the longest of which is one mile, the others ranging 
from 10 to 100 yards. 

Twelve miles from Parry Sound, on the Inner Channel, is 
found the outlet of Spider Lake, a spot where the bass fish- 
ing is unsurpassed. Near here is the township of Foley, ten 
miles square, containing no less than eighty lakes, all of 
which are noted for an abundant quantity of gamy fish. In 
addition to the attractions held out to the lover of rod and 
gun, the trip through the 30,000 Islands of the Georgian Bay 
is one of the most beautiful that may be taken in Canada, 
and not surpassed anywhere. 

In addition to the localities already mentioned that are 
favorite resorts for the angler, we would call attention to the 
districts north of Parry Sound, including the North Channel of 
the Georgian Bay. At Point aux Boril, salmon trout, white- 
fish and black bass are numerous, and the fishing is all that 
«an be desired, as it is at Byng Inlet and all through the French 
River as far as Lake Nipissing. In the North Channel the 
principal points for the fisherman are Killarney, Manitowaning, 



Fisla and Game Attractions of Canada 50 



Little Current, Kagawonk and Gore Bay, where salmon trout 
whitefish, black bass, maskinonge, pickerel and speckled 
trout can be found to cheer the most enthusiastic fisherman. 
Hilton and Thesssalon are also favorite resorts, and speckled 
trout and black bass abound in the waters in close contiguity. 
In fact, at almost every point along the shores of the Georgian 
Bay, fish of these different varieties are already caught. 

The Bay of Quinte. — The Bay of Quinte is one of the 
beautiful bodies of water that tourists and pleasure-seekers 
never tire of. Campeis can find ideal spots to pitch their 
tents, and the disciple of Izaak Walton can enjoy himself to 
his hearts content with the gamy species of the finny kingdom 
which are found in these waters Maskinonge abound, while 
bass and other fish can be found in goodly numbers. 

Angling in Manitoba, the Northwest and British 
Columbia. 

Many of the prairie lakes and streams of Manitoba and 
the Northwest are stocked with fine fish, including maskin- 
onge, trout, pike, black bass and other varieties. lack bass 
are chiefly found in the waters of eastern Manitoba, but trout 
of various kinds are caught all the way to the l'acific coast 
of Jiritish Columbia. Maskinonge are also to be had in 
eastern Manitoba waters, while in the Pembina mountain 
lakes, jackfish— as the pike is locally called — and mullet are 
plentiiul the former ranging in weight from half a pound to 
22 pounds. Good sport can be had in Lake Winnipeg by 
trolling, but the hunting of various kinds is so attractive 
hereabouts, that the fishing is considerably neglected The 
same may be said of most of the waters of the Northwest 
Territories, though in the vicinity of the cities there are 
anglers who enjoy the sport of catching the gamy trout 
Especially is this true of the Dow River and its tributaries, 
where glorious mountain trout fishing is indulged in, e\en 
close to the city of Calgary. 

Up away north from Edmonton is the great basin of the 
Mackenzie river where almost all the lakes and rivers contain 
whitefish and trout. 



60 Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



Trout are plentiful in the three branches of the Old Man 
River, in the Northwest Territories, and in its numerous 
tributaries west of McLeod ; one of the most enticing baits for 
the big ones being a mouse. There is also good fishing in the 
St. Mary's and Waterton (also called the Kootenay) and in all 
their branches, and capital sport with rod and line can be 
obtained in the chain of Kootenay lakes on the eastern slope 
of the Rocky Mountains. Salmon trout weighing from fifteen 
to forty pounds are among the catches in Eastern Kootenay. 

Excellent sport may be had in the various creeks which 
are reached among the Porcupine hills, by drives of thirty 
miles or so over fair roads from Fort McLeod. 

Alter crossing the boundary between the Northwest 
Territories and British Columbia, angling once more divides 
with hunting the close attention of the all-round sportsman. 
From Banff as a centre, good mountain trout fishing is offered 
him in the Bow and Cascade rivers, as well as deep trolling 
for lake trout in Devil's Lake. Good fly fishing is to be had 
at Field, and also at Emerald Lake, seven miles from the 
station. 

The headwaters of the Columbia river, reached by 
steamer from Golden, afford both trout and grayling fishing. 

A. comparatively new water, and one destined to become 
famous is the Lower Kootenay River, which teems with 
mountain trout of fair size. The many anglers who have 
tried it agree that it is one of the best streams available, 
while the scenery is simply superb. The country contiguous 
to it is well stocked with big game. The headwaters of the 
Kootenay lakes and river rise a little west of Banff. The 
river, below Nelson, is in part a succession of cascades, beau- 
tiful from a scenic point of view and abounding in rainbow 
trout, from one pound upwards, that are greedy for the fly. 
It is an ideal stream, rushing through gorges, and over 
rapids broadening into pools and forming numerous " just the 
spots" into which, practically, any length of line can be cast 
without the least obstruction from bushes or overhanging 
trees. And it possesses the inestimable advantage of being 
free from mosquitoes and black flies. The Lower Kootenay 



Fish and Game Attractions of Canada. 61 



is reached by rail from Revelstoke station to Arrow Lake 
station, on Upper Arrow Lake, and thence by steamer through 
the Arrow Lakes. The best fishing is just below the Lower 
Falls thirteen miles from Nelson. As very few fish are 
caught under a pound weight, and many run as high as three 
and four pounds, anglers should provide themselves with a 
gaff or landing net and be particular to see that their flies and 
tackle are new and strong. 

Too much can hardly be said in favor of this fishing in 
the Lower Kootenay River, near Nelson. The fishing season 
is a long one, and the rainbow trout which are found in this 
magnificent river are not surpassed in game qualities by any 
fish that swims. Moreover, they must be fished for with 
delicate tackle and small flies such as are used upon Euro- 
pean trout streams, hence the sport is more than usually 
difficult. 

No guides are required on the Slocan River, which 
empties its waters into the Lower. Kootenay. There is good 
fly-fishing in this stream. 

In the Slocaa district of the Kootenay, which has just 
been opened up by the building of the railway from Nakusp 
to Saadon, there is good brook trout fishing in the streams 
which empty into Slocau Lake, while the Lake itself offers 
excellent deepwater fishing. The trout of both Slocan and 
Kootenay Lakes are beautiful fish, aud as silvery as a salmon 
from the sea. Those that take the angler's flies are usually 
from three quarters of a pound to two pounds in weight. 
For sporting qualities they are unequalled by any other mem- 
bers of the family, and are excellent table fish. On the troll, 
trout up to twenty and even thirty pound weight were taken 
in Lake Kootenay. In the latter mentioned lake, as well as 
in Kamloops Lake, landlocked salmon are taken. 

The Kamloops trout are found in the Thomson River, 
just below Kamloops Lake, and rival the ouananiche of Lake 
St. John in liveliness of manner and agility in leaping out of 
the water when hooked. 

British Columbia has another close congener of the 
ouananiche. This fish bears the same relation to the sock-eye 



62 Pish and Game Attractions of Canada. 



as the eastern ouananiche does to Salmo salar. It is a small 
red-fleshed salmon, existing in great abundance in Shawnigan 
Lake, and is also abundant in the lakes discharging into the 
Stikine and Skeena rivers, though it is seldom seen excepting 
during the month of October. Although this salmon has 
free access to the Columbia River, and, consequently, to the 
sea, yet it never leaves the lake in which it is found. 

Excellent trout fishing can be had in the Barrier River, 
which flows into the North Thompson, and also in Long Lake, 
which is in close proximity to Kamloops. 

Rainbow trout weighing up to twenty-two and a half 
pounds have been taken in some of the inland lakes, and 
excellent angling is to be had almost all along the route to 
the coast 

Tourists stopping at Vancouver can have good fly-fishing 
at Coquitlam River, seventeen miles by train to Westminster 
Junction, where there is a comfortable hotel. 

Capilno Creek or Seymour Creek, about an hour's row 
across the bay from Vancouver, offers a splendid day's sport, 
while at the mouth of either stream during low tide, trout 
weighing from two to seven pound each afford excellent 
fishing. In the months of August, September and October, a 
good day's sport may be had trolling for cohoe salmon in the 
bay. Pacific coast salmon will not rise to a fly, but as many 
as fifteen or twenty fish, varying from five to twenty pounds, 
are sometimes killed in an afternoon by trolling in salt water. 

Harrison Hot Springs, reached from Agassiz station, on 
the Canadian Pacific Railway, is a pleasant summer resort, 
about forty miles from Vancouver, from which the angrier can 
reach excellent waters. An hour's row across Harrison Lake 
will take him to streams where more trout can be killed in a 
day with fly than he would like to carry far. 

Excellent trout fishing is to be had at Lake Beautiful, on 
Burrard Inlet, twenty-three miles from Vancouver, which is 
reached by steam launch procurable at any time. 

And finally another field is open to the angler on Van- 
couver Island, where excellent fishing in numerous streams 
and in Cowichan, Duncan's and shawnigan Lakes awaits the 
visiting disciple of Izaak Walton. 



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